nursing anonomy



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Assessment One

Knowledge Questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Knowledge questions

  1. Briefly describe the overall structure and functions of the following components of the human body.

 

  1. a) Overall structure and functions of a human cell

Structure (in 50-80 words):

 

 

Functions (in 40-70 words):

 

 

 

  1. b) Overall structure and functions of skeletal muscle tissue:

Structure (in 40-70 words):

 

 

 

Functions (in 25-50 words):

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the following four (4) major types of cellular adaptation (in 30-50 words each).
  2. a) Hyperplasia:

 

 

  1. b) Hypertrophy:

 

 

  1. c) Atrophy:

 

 

  1. d) Metaplasia:

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the following life processes in your own words (in 30-50 words each).
  2. a) Organisation:

 

 

  1. b) Processes of metabolism:

 

 

  1. c) Nutrition:

 

 

  1. d) Biological maturation:

 

 

  1. e) Inheritance:

 

 

  1. f) Ageing:

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the six (6) levels of structural organisation of the human body in order from the smallest structural unit to the largest (in 190-220 words).

 

 

 

  1. The human body strives to adjust to conditions that are optimal for survival. Answer the following questions on homeostasis.

 

  1. Briefly describe the concept of homeostasis in your own words (in 60-90 words).

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the relationship between homeostatic imbalance and disease (in 70-100 words).

 

 

 

  1. Briefly explain the process of body temperature regulation through behavioural and physiological mechanisms (in 100-130 words).

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the cardio-vascular system (in 60-90 words).

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the respiratory system (in 80-110 words).

 

 

  1. How does the respiratory system work with the cardio-vascular system? (In 90-110 words).

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the muscular system (in 60-90 words).

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the skeletal system (in 60-90 words).

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the interactions between the muscular system and skeletal system in maintaining the posture and balance of the body (in 30-60 words).

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the endocrine system (in 60-90 words).

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the nervous system (in 80 – 110 words).

 

 

  1. How do the endocrine and nervous systems work together to act as a communication system for the human body? (In 60-90 words).

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the digestive system (in 70-100 words).

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the urinary system (in 70-100 words).

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe how the urinary system, respiratory system, digestive system and integumentary system contribute to excretion of waste products from the human body (in 110-140 words).

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the male and female reproductive systems (in 80-110 words).

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the interaction of the reproductive and endocrine systems (in 110-130 words).

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the integumentary system (in 60-90 words).

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure and functions of the lymphatic system (in 70-100 words).

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe the three (3) lines of defence provided by our immune system (in 190 – 220words).

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure of the human eye and how the eyes contribute to our vision (in 120-150 words).

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure of the human ear and how the ears contribute to our hearing (in 150-180 words).

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the ear mechanism that controls the balance and equilibrium of the body (in 60-90 words).

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe organs associated with and processes underpinning the sense of smell in humans (in 60-90 words).

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe organs associated with and processes underpinning the sense of taste in humans (in 60-90 words).

 

 

 

 

  1. The major organ systems and their vital components are given in the following table. Identify one (1) common disorder affecting each organ or component and list two (2) signs and symptoms of each disorder, problem or complaint.

 

Cardiovascular system-

 

  1. Heart

Common disorders, problem and complains: Congestive cardiac failure

Two signs and symptoms: Shortness of breath, edema and fatigue.

 

  1. Blood vessels

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Blood

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

Digestive system

  1. Stomach

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Large intestine

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Small intestine

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

 

Special senses

  1. Eyes

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Ears

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Nose

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

Endocrine system

  1. Thyroid

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Pituitary gland

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

Female reproductive system

  1. Ovary

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Uterus

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

Male reproductive system

  1. Testis

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Prostate

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

Respiratory system

  1. Lungs

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

Integumentary system

  1. Skin

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

Nervous system

  1. Brain

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Spinal cord

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

Musculoskeletal system

  1. Bone

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Muscles

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Joint

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

Urinary system

  1. Kidneys

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Urinary bladder

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

Lymphatic system

  1. Lymph nodes and vessels

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

 

  1. Spleen

Common disorders, problem and complains:

Two signs and symptoms:

 

  1. Various health issues of mouth and teeth are listed below. Briefly describe the cause and key features of these diseases. (In 30-50 words each)
  • Dental caries:

 

  • Periodontal disease:

 

  • Halitosis:

 

 

 

  • Dry mouth:

 

 

 

  • Denture stomatitis:

 

 

 

 

  1. Imagine that you are going to administer a Paracetamol tablet as a pain killer to a resident prior to providing wound care. Identify the cautions and contraindications you would look for in relation to the medication being administered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. You are required to insert a naso gastric tube for a resident. What cautions and contraindications will you look for prior to using Xylocaine jelly as a lubricant during tube insertion?

 

 

 

 

  1. To whom would you refer any potentially serious issues in relation to the physical health status of a client?

 

 

 

 

  1. List three (3) physical, mental and emotional causes of disease.
  2. a) Physical causes:

 

 

 

  1. b) Mental and emotional causes:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe the key features of the following agents/factors causing diseases. (Hint: what do they actually do to human beings?) (In 50-90 words each):
  2. Pathogens:

 

 

 

 

 

  1. b) Inherited genetic conditions:

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. c) Trauma:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. d) Toxins:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. e) Environmental hazards:

 

 

 

 

 

  1. f) Nutritional factors:

 

 

 

 

  1. g) Impacts caused by health interventions (Iatrogenic):

 

 

 

  1. h) Degenerative changes in vital organ systems

 

 

 

 

  1. i) The loss of normal control mechanisms such as the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Koutoukidis, G, Stainton, K & Hughson, J. (2016). Tabbner’s nursing care. (7th ed.).

Chatswood, NSW: Churchill Livingstone.

 

Patton, K., & Thibodeau, G. (2013). Human Body in Health and Disease, 6th edition, Elsevier,China.

 

Education Science Tips. (2012). 14 Types of Cells in Human Body & their Functions.

Retrieved from http://www.rajaha.com/types-cells-human-body/

 

InnerBody. (n.d.). Human Anatomy System. Retrieved from http://www.innerbody.com/

 

National Cancer Institute – SEER Training Modules. (n.d). Introduction to the Human



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