INFORMATIONPaper Format: Abstract page Number of pages: Number of slides: Number of questions: Number of problems: Academic Level: Type of work: Type of paper: Sources neededMLA No 5 Double spaced 0 0 0 Undergraduate Writing from scratch Critical thinking 0Subject Philosophy Topic 5 Essay QuestionsPaper detailsFinal Exam for Philosophical Reasoning and IssuesInstructions: The Final exam consists of five essay questions covering the second eight weeksof class. You will have two weeks to complete the Final. Each of the five essay questions below require answers that should be at least 250words which is typically one page if typed and double spaced. Your answers may be longerthan 250 words. In writing the essay make sure to follow the directions and answer all of therequired parts of the question. All of the answers must be in your own words and refrain fromusing quotes from the text. Do not include the question with your answer.The Five Essay Questions(1) In Chapter five we discussed the Cartesian Method and two of the Meditations fromDescartesâ€™ Meditations. The Cartesian Method is a powerful tool for tool for solvingpractical problems. In the first part of this question, explain how Descartes appliessome of his steps in the Method to the problems of philosophy in Meditations one andtwo. In the second part of the question discuss a practical problem using the Cartesianmethod. Be sure to relate all of Descartesâ€™ steps from the method to your problem.(2) The Socratic Method discussed in the Euthyphro, Apology and the Crito was Socratesâ€™technique to use philosophical reasoning. In the text the classic style, the defensive styleand the Moral reasoning style of the method is explained. Discuss how Socrates uses hismethod in all three dialogues. In discussing his method be sure to discuss creativequestioning and also other types of philosophical reasoning used by Socrates. Socratesalso advocates a type of knowledge called self-knowledge. Explain what Socrates meansby coming to know the truth on your own.(3) In the Movie Twelve Angry Men, there were numerous issues concerning philosophicalissues and reasoning. One of the central issues is how the responsibility of juror becomescrucial when determining the guilt or innocence of a person on trial. In the movie therewere some jurors that obviously held prejudicial views towards the boy on trial. Discussthe scenes in which this is evidenced. Another theme in the movie is how philosophicalreasoning is used to challenge the evidence against the boy on trial. The reasoning inparticular was Reductio ad Absurdum. Consider some of the examples from the text fromExercise 8.2 of the movie exercises. Explain how this reasoning was able to convince someof the jurors to change their mind about the verdict.(4) Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were both Social Contract theorists. Hobbes and Lockeboth discuss a state of nature and the social contract. Explain how Hobbes and Lockediffer in their views concerning the state of nature. In addition discuss Hobbesâ€™ viewtowards the best form of government and Lockeâ€™s view towards the best form ofgovernment.(5) In John Stuart Millâ€™s On Liberty chapter two, Mill puts forth his defense of the freedom ofspeech in a dilemma argument. Discuss Millâ€™s argument and put into standard form. Millmaintains that whether an opinion is true or false it should never be suppressed byauthority. In defending this point of view Mill mentions that infallibility argument. Discussthe infallibility argument and explain how that view supports his argument. Mill alsomentions famous examples from history. How do these historical examples support histhesis? In addition discuss your opinion on the freedom of speech and its limitations. Doyou agree with Millâ€™s harm principle?
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