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23787 HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT



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23787 HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT
Name_____________________________________________________
Student Number_____________________________________________
The aim of this assessment is to construct a simple decision tree diagram to assess the cost-effectiveness of a new cervical screening test when compared to the current screening test. The assessment task requires you to complete a series of structured stages, and then to write a brief health technology assessment report with the specified headings summarizing the project, methods and outcomes. All stages contribute to the assessment.
Please note that you DO NOT REQUIRE dedicated economic modelling software to complete this task. All of the calculations can be undertaken easily with a calculator or in Excel.
Your completed assessment should be submitted through TURNITIN – via UTS Online. Select Assessment from the menu
Label your attachment with your name and student number as follows:
23787_Assessment_3_First name_Last name_Student Number

Your completed assessment task should have
1. An executive summary that represents a brief health technology assessment report based on your answers: summarizing the project, methods and outcomes. This part should be no more than 500 words. (10 marks)
The required headings for the executive summary are:
• Objectives
• Methods
• Data
• Results
• Key areas of uncertainty
• Discussion
• Recommendation
2. An attachment that shows your answers to Parts One to Six of the task, including calculations where required. (Contribution to overall marks are shown for each part) (50 marks in total)
Part One: Calculating the accuracy of the two test alternatives (10 marks)
Screening tests for cervical cancer aim to identify pre-cancerous changes in the cervix that could develop into cervical cancer. If the pre-cancerous tissues is identified early and removed, then cervical cancer can be prevented for developing.
The Comparator – In the conventional Pap smear, the doctor collecting the cells smears them on a microscope slide and applies a fixative. This slide is then sent to a laboratory for evaluation. Studies of the accuracy of conventional (current) Pap smear tests report:
• Sensitivity 72%
• Specificity 94%
The New Test – The new test works in exactly the same way as the current test, however the manufacturer believes that the sensitivity of the new test is better. Below are the results of a cohort study that tested the new cervical screening test. Note that all women were 30 years of age when tested.
New Test Disease Status Total
Cervical cancer (+ve) Cervical cancer (-ve)
Test (Positive) 44 36
Test (Negative) 6 564
Total
A) For the new cervical screening test define the following, and include the number of individuals in each group.
• True positive
• False positive
• True negative
• False negative
B) Calculate the sensitivity and specificity for the new test.
C) Compared with the current test, the new test was evaluated using a different cohort of women and in a different laboratory. Does this influence the sensitivity and specificity of the new test?

Part Two: Construct a decision tree (10 marks)
Your task is to assess the cost-effectiveness of screening women when they reach the age of 30. We also assume that everyone who is invited to participate in screening program receives a cervical screening test (i.e. the uptake rate of the test is 100%).
Draw a decision tree to determine whether the new cervical screening test is more cost-effective than the current test. To do this you need to create a decision node with the option to accept the new test or the current test. For each test, the terminal nodes should reflect the possible outcomes of the test result (e.g. True positive etc…)

Part Three: Estimating the benefit of testing (5 marks)
To populate the decision tree we need to estimate the benefits and costs of each test option. The benefits of screening are measured in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained (i.e. quality-of-life multiplied by the number of years in that health state).
• Utility score – A time-trade off study conducted on the same cohort of women that received the new test demonstrated that;
o The average utility in the non-cancer group (test negative) was 0.92.
o The average utility in the non-cancer group (test positive) was 0.91 (slight reduction in utility due to further investigations and concern of possible cancer)
o The average utility in the cancer group (not detected by the test) was 0.45 (This reduced utility is due to the side-effects of treatment and the impact of the disease).
o The average utility in the cancer group (detected by the test and treated early) is 0.87 (there is a slight reduction in quality of life due to early treatment.
• Survival – Long-term registry data were used to estimate the additional survival (note that this is the additional survival beyond 30 years of age, which is the age when a person would be screened in this model)
o The average survival of a 30 year old woman with cervical cancer (not detected early) is an additional 5 years.
o The average survival of a 30 year old woman with cervical cancer that is detected early and treated (i.e. detected with a positive test results) is an additional 40 years.
o For all other 30 year old women (no cancer) the average survival is an additional 40 years.
A) Calculate the average additional QALYs gained for individuals with the following possible test outcomes:
• True positive
• False positive
• True negative
• False negative
B) In this model, all outcomes (costs and benefits) are undiscounted. Why do we discount future costs and benefits? Why might discounting costs and benefits at the same rate penalize preventative health programs?

Part Four: Estimating Costs (5 marks)
The tables below were taken from a longitudinal cohort study of women that participated in the current screening program. The unit costs are provided in Table 1. Table 2, contains an inventory of all the resources used, on average, by an individual depending upon their test result.
• For example, an individual identified as being ‘true positive’ (using the current test) would require the following resources – 1xcurrent test, 2 x GP visits, 1 x further examination – early treatment. Therefore their treatment would cost – 1x$50 + (2x$35) + 1 x $2000 = $2,120
Combine the information from Tables 1 and 2 to generate the total cost of each screening outcome. Do this for both the current test and the new test scenarios.
Table 1: Unit costs
Description Cost
Current test $50
New Test $300
GP appointment $35
Further examination – No treatment $500
Further examination – Early treatment $2000
Delayed treatment $50,000
Table 2: Resources use for each possible alternative
Current test New Test GP visit Further exam – no treat Further exam – early treat Delayed treatment
Current test True Positive 1 2 1
False positive 1 2 1
True negative 1 1
False negative 1 1 1
New Test True Positive 1 2 1
False positive 1 2 1
True negative 1 1
False negative 1 1 1
NOTE: All costs calculated should be presented to two decimal places.

Part Five: Cost-utility analysis (10 marks)
You should now have the following information:
• Accuracy of the current and new cervical screening tests
• A decision tree that reflects the possible outcomes of both tests
• An estimate of the QALYs gains for each alternative
• An estimate of the resource use (cost) of each alternative
The final information that you need to complete to complete the analysis is the prevalence of cervical cancer in this population. In this example we are screening women 30 years of age; the prevalence of cervical cancer in this cohort is 1 in 1000 or (0.001)
A) Complete Table 3: Model Parameters using the information Part One-Part Four.
Parameter description Current Test New Test
Prevalence of cervical cancer 0.001 0.001
Sensitivity of test 0.72
Specificity of test 0.94
Cost – True Positive
Cost – False Positive
Cost – True Negative
Cost – False negative
QALYs – True Positive
QALYs – False Positive
QALYs – True Negative
QALYs – False negative
B) You now need to combine this information into your decision tree to determine the cost-effectiveness of the new test relative to the current test. Provide your answer as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) (i.e. cost/QALY gained). Also, provide the diagram of your decision tree at this stage.
• Hint: Remember that you need to calculate the expected value (costs and QALYs) of each alternative before you can estimate the cost-effectiveness. It is easier to calculate the expected value if you start at the end of the tree, rather than the beginning (i.e. you need to roll-back the decision tree – see lecture notes for example)
C) If the decision maker has set an explicit threshold of $50,000 / QALY gained, would you say the new test is cost-effective? Explain your answer.

Part 6: Sensitivity Analysis (10 marks)
The decision maker would like you to determine the cost-effectiveness of the new test in a population of women with a family history of cervical cancer. In this high-risk cohort of women, the prevalence of cervical cancer is 1 in 100 (0.01).
A) Calculate the ICER of the new test relative to the current test in this high-risk population of women.
B) Why do you think the cost-effectiveness of the new test is sensitivity to prevalent risk of cervical cancer in the population?
C) In the original model (prevalence = 0.001), we assumed a 20 min GP appointment costs $35. However, an audit of General Practices conducting the new test shows that 60% of GPs charge patients a double appointment (2x20mins). How does this change you ICER? Explain your answer.
D) What would be the ICER for the new test in the high-risk cohort (prevalence of cervical cancer is 0.01), if 60% of GPs charge patients a double appointment (2x20mins).
E) What type of sensitivity analysis was carried out in sub-question (D)? What is the advantage of this over what was conducted in sub-question (C)?



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HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT



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Name_____________________________________________________
Student Number_____________________________________________
The aim of this assessment is to construct a simple decision tree diagram to assess the cost-effectiveness of a new cervical screening test when compared to the current screening test. The assessment task requires you to complete a series of structured stages, and then to write a brief health technology assessment report with the specified headings summarizing the project, methods and outcomes. All stages contribute to the assessment.
Please note that you DO NOT REQUIRE dedicated economic modelling software to complete this task. All of the calculations can be undertaken easily with a calculator or in Excel.
Your completed assessment should be submitted through TURNITIN – via UTS Online. Select Assessment from the menu
Label your attachment with your name and student number as follows:
23787_Assessment_3_First name_Last name_Student Number

Your completed assessment task should have
1. An executive summary that represents a brief health technology assessment report based on your answers: summarizing the project, methods and outcomes. This part should be no more than 500 words. (10 marks)
The required headings for the executive summary are:
• Objectives
• Methods
• Data
• Results
• Key areas of uncertainty
• Discussion
• Recommendation
2. An attachment that shows your answers to Parts One to Six of the task, including calculations where required. (Contribution to overall marks are shown for each part) (50 marks in total)
Part One: Calculating the accuracy of the two test alternatives (10 marks)
Screening tests for cervical cancer aim to identify pre-cancerous changes in the cervix that could develop into cervical cancer. If the pre-cancerous tissues is identified early and removed, then cervical cancer can be prevented for developing.
The Comparator – In the conventional Pap smear, the doctor collecting the cells smears them on a microscope slide and applies a fixative. This slide is then sent to a laboratory for evaluation. Studies of the accuracy of conventional (current) Pap smear tests report:
• Sensitivity 72%
• Specificity 94%
The New Test – The new test works in exactly the same way as the current test, however the manufacturer believes that the sensitivity of the new test is better. Below are the results of a cohort study that tested the new cervical screening test. Note that all women were 30 years of age when tested.
New Test Disease Status Total
Cervical cancer (+ve) Cervical cancer (-ve)
Test (Positive) 44 36
Test (Negative) 6 564
Total
A) For the new cervical screening test define the following, and include the number of individuals in each group.
• True positive
• False positive
• True negative
• False negative
B) Calculate the sensitivity and specificity for the new test.
C) Compared with the current test, the new test was evaluated using a different cohort of women and in a different laboratory. Does this influence the sensitivity and specificity of the new test?

Part Two: Construct a decision tree (10 marks)
Your task is to assess the cost-effectiveness of screening women when they reach the age of 30. We also assume that everyone who is invited to participate in screening program receives a cervical screening test (i.e. the uptake rate of the test is 100%).
Draw a decision tree to determine whether the new cervical screening test is more cost-effective than the current test. To do this you need to create a decision node with the option to accept the new test or the current test. For each test, the terminal nodes should reflect the possible outcomes of the test result (e.g. True positive etc…)

Part Three: Estimating the benefit of testing (5 marks)
To populate the decision tree we need to estimate the benefits and costs of each test option. The benefits of screening are measured in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained (i.e. quality-of-life multiplied by the number of years in that health state).
• Utility score – A time-trade off study conducted on the same cohort of women that received the new test demonstrated that;
o The average utility in the non-cancer group (test negative) was 0.92.
o The average utility in the non-cancer group (test positive) was 0.91 (slight reduction in utility due to further investigations and concern of possible cancer)
o The average utility in the cancer group (not detected by the test) was 0.45 (This reduced utility is due to the side-effects of treatment and the impact of the disease).
o The average utility in the cancer group (detected by the test and treated early) is 0.87 (there is a slight reduction in quality of life due to early treatment.
• Survival – Long-term registry data were used to estimate the additional survival (note that this is the additional survival beyond 30 years of age, which is the age when a person would be screened in this model)
o The average survival of a 30 year old woman with cervical cancer (not detected early) is an additional 5 years.
o The average survival of a 30 year old woman with cervical cancer that is detected early and treated (i.e. detected with a positive test results) is an additional 40 years.
o For all other 30 year old women (no cancer) the average survival is an additional 40 years.
A) Calculate the average additional QALYs gained for individuals with the following possible test outcomes:
• True positive
• False positive
• True negative
• False negative
B) In this model, all outcomes (costs and benefits) are undiscounted. Why do we discount future costs and benefits? Why might discounting costs and benefits at the same rate penalize preventative health programs?

Part Four: Estimating Costs (5 marks)
The tables below were taken from a longitudinal cohort study of women that participated in the current screening program. The unit costs are provided in Table 1. Table 2, contains an inventory of all the resources used, on average, by an individual depending upon their test result.
• For example, an individual identified as being ‘true positive’ (using the current test) would require the following resources – 1xcurrent test, 2 x GP visits, 1 x further examination – early treatment. Therefore their treatment would cost – 1x$50 + (2x$35) + 1 x $2000 = $2,120
Combine the information from Tables 1 and 2 to generate the total cost of each screening outcome. Do this for both the current test and the new test scenarios.
Table 1: Unit costs
Description Cost
Current test $50
New Test $300
GP appointment $35
Further examination – No treatment $500
Further examination – Early treatment $2000
Delayed treatment $50,000
Table 2: Resources use for each possible alternative
Current test New Test GP visit Further exam – no treat Further exam – early treat Delayed treatment
Current test True Positive 1 2 1
False positive 1 2 1
True negative 1 1
False negative 1 1 1
New Test True Positive 1 2 1
False positive 1 2 1
True negative 1 1
False negative 1 1 1
NOTE: All costs calculated should be presented to two decimal places.

Part Five: Cost-utility analysis (10 marks)
You should now have the following information:
• Accuracy of the current and new cervical screening tests
• A decision tree that reflects the possible outcomes of both tests
• An estimate of the QALYs gains for each alternative
• An estimate of the resource use (cost) of each alternative
The final information that you need to complete to complete the analysis is the prevalence of cervical cancer in this population. In this example we are screening women 30 years of age; the prevalence of cervical cancer in this cohort is 1 in 1000 or (0.001)
A) Complete Table 3: Model Parameters using the information Part One-Part Four.
Parameter description Current Test New Test
Prevalence of cervical cancer 0.001 0.001
Sensitivity of test 0.72
Specificity of test 0.94
Cost – True Positive
Cost – False Positive
Cost – True Negative
Cost – False negative
QALYs – True Positive
QALYs – False Positive
QALYs – True Negative
QALYs – False negative
B) You now need to combine this information into your decision tree to determine the cost-effectiveness of the new test relative to the current test. Provide your answer as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) (i.e. cost/QALY gained). Also, provide the diagram of your decision tree at this stage.
• Hint: Remember that you need to calculate the expected value (costs and QALYs) of each alternative before you can estimate the cost-effectiveness. It is easier to calculate the expected value if you start at the end of the tree, rather than the beginning (i.e. you need to roll-back the decision tree – see lecture notes for example)
C) If the decision maker has set an explicit threshold of $50,000 / QALY gained, would you say the new test is cost-effective? Explain your answer.

Part 6: Sensitivity Analysis (10 marks)
The decision maker would like you to determine the cost-effectiveness of the new test in a population of women with a family history of cervical cancer. In this high-risk cohort of women, the prevalence of cervical cancer is 1 in 100 (0.01).
A) Calculate the ICER of the new test relative to the current test in this high-risk population of women.
B) Why do you think the cost-effectiveness of the new test is sensitivity to prevalent risk of cervical cancer in the population?
C) In the original model (prevalence = 0.001), we assumed a 20 min GP appointment costs $35. However, an audit of General Practices conducting the new test shows that 60% of GPs charge patients a double appointment (2x20mins). How does this change you ICER? Explain your answer.
D) What would be the ICER for the new test in the high-risk cohort (prevalence of cervical cancer is 0.01), if 60% of GPs charge patients a double appointment (2x20mins).
E) What type of sensitivity analysis was carried out in sub-question (D)? What is the advantage of this over what was conducted in sub-question (C)?



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STRATEGIC THINKING How Leaders Can Focus on the Big Picture by Elsbeth Johnson NOVEMBER 09, 2016 Every leader knows that they shouldn’t micromanage



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STRATEGIC THINKING How Leaders Can Focus on the Big Picture by Elsbeth Johnson NOVEMBER 09, 2016 Every leader knows that they shouldn’t micromanage — even if some of us still do. But while we understand the downsides of micromanaging and taken action to avoid it, we still haven’t sufficiently embraced the upsides of not micromanaging. The main upside is that leaders have more time to spend on what we call macromanagement. Although there are different definitions of this term floating around, when I talk with executives, I use it to mean managing the big issues rather than the small ones. Time and effort spent on macromanagement enables leaders to be as clear, decisive, and disciplined at the macro level — on COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 the big strategic questions the organization is facing — as their managers are at the micro level, i.e., about how these decisions might be implemented. So, what are these big strategic questions that leaders aren’t spending enough time on or aren’t answering in a sufficiently clear or disciplined way? They are questions about: • why the organization exists and what its purpose is • what it offers (and does not offer) its customers, and how and why this offer delivers value to these customers • what this produces for the business and for shareholders — the critical outcome metrics by which the organization will be judged • how the people within the organization will behave — toward customers, other stakeholders, and each other I don’t know many leaders who would say they don’t think these questions are important. But I know lots of leaders who don’t spend enough time answering them, and even more who don’t answer them with sufficient clarity so their people can then get on with delivering the answers. Lack of Time Isn’t the Only Reason Leaders Ignore These Questions A lack of time, too many so-called “priorities,” and the gnawing presence of the urgent masquerading as the important are usually quoted as the main reasons why leaders’ answers to these macro questions aren’t clear enough. But I suspect an even more fundamental reason is at play here. For the past 30 years, the literature on leadership and empowerment has advised leaders not to be too prescriptive about these questions, lest they undermine employee empowerment. We have been told that participative leadership, rather than prescriptive leadership, is what we should aim for; that organizations should be agile, with “change the only constant”; and that empowerment is critical for employee satisfaction and long-term value. I agree with the third point: Empowerment is critical. But, as my own research shows, in order to be meaningful, empowerment requires some boundaries, some rules that have been decided on within which empowerment can be exercised. Ironically, in order to truly empower employees, leaders need to be prescriptive, at least about certain things. And these things are precisely the macro questions of why the organization exists, what it will deliver, and how it will behave. If leaders aren’t providing clarity and certainty about these critical macro questions, then the best, most motivated employees flail in their so-called freedom because they can’t be sure they are doing what leaders want or are using their time and resources in the best way possible. And because they want to do that, they find this lack of prescription stressful — and a huge constraint on them acting in an empowered way. Equally, the less keen and the less motivated on the payroll take this lack of COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3 prescription by leaders as license to do what they want (and perhaps what they were already doing), which, of course, may be diametrically opposed to what the leaders had in mind. Making time for such macro questions is not a luxury — it is a necessity. And is it not something that can be delegated or outsourced. Nor is it something that leaders should do only once a year, at the strategy offsite or at the start of the strategic planning round. It needs to become part of their weekly routine. OK, I Made the Time. Now What? Once you’ve set aside time on a regular basis to wrestle with these questions, how can you come up with the best possible answers — and refine those answers? Here are some tips from those I’ve seen do it well: • Make choices in the negative. For everything you decide you want (a particular market positioning, an investment in a new product, a new capability or function), articulate what that means you can’t do. This forces you to think through the consequences of choosing these options by thinking about what the trade-offs are for each choice you are making. • Pretend you have no money. When organizations are strapped for cash, they have to make hard choices about what to spend money on because they don’t have enough. It’s often during such times that leaders describe themselves as at their most strategic. But it’s easy to diet if someone’s padlocked the fridge — what happens when you get the key back? All too frequently, when the cash starts to flow again, leaders start “choosing everything” again, and it’s this oxymoron that sows the seeds of the next bout of underperformance. Having too many priorities means you don’t really have any, which puts your organization’s implementation capability under strain. It also compromises your own leadership bandwidth, reducing your ability to macromanage. So pretend you’re cash-strapped — it will act as the ultimate constraint on your desire to choose everything. • Talk to the unusual suspects. These could be inside or outside your organization, but whoever they are, choose them because they are likely to disagree with you, challenge you, or tell you something you don’t know. To ensure you have a ready supply of such people, you may need to look again at your strategic network — it may have gotten too stale to offer you such connections. If that’s the case, weed out the deadwood and actively recruit people from different sectors, skill sets, and backgrounds who can help you test the quality of your macro answers. Questions to ask them include: “Why will this not work?” and “What do I have to believe for this not to turn out that way?” Being challenged and having new information may well change your answers; even if it does not, it will make your existing answers more robust. • Exist at the macro and micro-levels simultaneously. One of the CEOs I most admire can do this — she goes from 10,000 feet to ground level in 30 seconds, linking her answers to the macro questions (this purpose, this brand positioning, this customer offer) to the micro operational implications for the business. But what she does really well is come back up. Because it is all too tempting, once you have gone micro, to stay there. But the main point of going micro is to test the validity of the macromanagement views you are coming to. COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4 Of course, the prize for middle managers here is huge — once leaders are sufficiently clear and prescriptive about these macro questions, middle managers can get on with implementing them. But the prize for leaders is arguably greater still: They might no longer be needed for the daily grind of managing the business and can instead use their time and effort for the true work of leadership. That is, they can think about the strategic rather than the tactical, focus on the future rather than the present. After all, isn’t that why they wanted to become leaders in the first place? Elsbeth Johnson, Ph.D., is an Adjunct Professor of Organisational Behaviour at London Business School and a Visiting Fellow at the LSE. COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5 Copyright of Harvard Business Review Digital Articles is the property of Harvard Business School Publication Corp. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.LEADERSHIP When Charismatic Leadership Goes Too Far by Dan Ciampa NOVEMBER 21, 2016 In most cases, charisma is a useful quality for CEOs. Many work hard to develop charismatic skills. Especially when an organization is asked to become more innovative and to perform beyond normal levels, having followers with an unusually strong belief in the leader and their vision increases the odds of success. But charisma has a dark side that can sap the strength and potency from an organization. If it grows too powerful, the leader becomes inefective at motivating others and at driving the business. COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 Charisma is often misunderstood. Historian Arthur Schlesinger helped popularize the term in the 1960s. As it became used widely, he complained that the word had been reduced to simply “a chic synonym for ‘heroic’…or even just ‘popular.’” It became widely used during and after World War II, when it was used to describe Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill…but was just as frequently applied to Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. The sociologist Max Weber defned the “charismatic organization” as one that exists not due to a legal structure or a strong tradition but to the personal magnetism of the person leading it. That’s one reason the word “charismatic” often comes up when describing the dynamics of cults. Up to a point, having a magnetic leader — someone that people want to follow — is good for an organization that has to go through signifcant change. Charismatic leaders are skilled at articulating a compelling vision that inspires followers. They’re also adept at reading the environment and sensing the needs of followers to tailor a message that will have the most impact. Charismatic leaders are good storytellers who use symbolism and metaphor to make stories come alive. But true charismatic leadership is more than just a set of techniques to excite followers. Rather, it comes from the leader’s observable behavior, displaying a deep belief in the promise and possibilities of the organization, a sense of optimism for the probability of success, and a willingness to take personal risks and make sacrifces to turn the vision into reality. Often, followers admire a charismatic leader enough to actively try to develop some of the leader’s distinctive qualities in themselves. Bu charisma can be a slippery slope. Over time, deepening loyalty creates negative changes in the leader’s behavior. A leader must be attuned to early signs of this shift, which sounds easier than it is. There are fve phases that take place as a leader’s charisma shifts from a positive to a negative quality: The frst phase is characterized by the subtle sense on the part of followers that the leader does not want to be questioned. Followers may begin to quietly complain that the leader is becoming hubristic and acts like they believe they’re the smartest person in the room. The second stage fows logically from the frst: sensing the leader’s diminished appetite for being questioned or challenged, followers begin to self-censor, asking fewer questions and no longer playing devil’s advocate. One person reported: “The last time I [pushed back], he came back with a bunch of reasons why I was wrong, and I felt stupid. I’m not going there again.” Instead of fostering healthy dissent, the charismatic leader begins to be surrounded by “yes” people. As the leader begins to hear only praise and admiration, they enter the third stage: a negative cycle in which compliments and agreement cause them to become overconfdent. Leaders in this stage create their own sense of reality and become resistant to evidence that they may be incorrect. While the frst COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3 and second stages mostly involve recognition by followers, the third stage involves a distinct shift in behavior by the leader. If nothing is done to stop this cycle, it progresses to the fourth stage. Since the leader’s views and actions are the only ones that matter, followers reduce their willingness to be proactive. They wait for directions and become passive. Decision making slows down. Eforts at strengthening teamwork stop, and meetings change from a time of joint decisions and buy-in to being when the leader announces what everyone else should do. Leaders in this situation complain: “If I want something done right, I need to do it myself.” Because followers begin to grow disillusioned, this stage ends with rising employee turnover. The ffth stage is characterized by people continuing to follow and ostensibly do only what is necessary but with a deep diminishment in enthusiasm and spirit. They still hear and comply with what the leader wants, but the passion is gone because they don’t feel that they are a part of it anymore. Eventually, they stop listening and become cynical. Creativity and productivity decline. What was once a shared, common vision is now just the leader’s vision. The leader feels unsupported and followers feel estranged. What should leaders be aware of to prevent a slide down this slope? First, charismatic leadership is as seductive for the leader as for followers, and the better one is at it, the easier it is to be blind to signs of trouble. Second, the relationship between leader and followers is delicate and requires constant tending. If not managed well by both, a slippery slope can lead to behavior that will destroy the success that they have achieved. Third, while both leader and followers have responsibility to manage their relationship, the leader has far more power to determine the outcome. If he or she does not allow for feedback and dissent, followers will accommodate rather than push back. Fourth, the slippery slope that results has certain points where negative efects can be reversed, but if they’re ignored, the accelerating momentum will be impossible to stop, causing failure that damages the leader and organization. Because each situation is diferent, there aren’t steps that will always avoid or solve problems. In general, though, there are two areas where leaders, especially charismatic ones, should concentrate. One has to do with the culture of the organization, and the other is about themselves and how they lead. Sliding down the slippery slope will be less likely if the culture emphasizes open communication, including a structured method to extract learning from every success and mistake. Forums must exist where the big bets of the strategy are debated, including a talent plan that ensures a match between the strategy and the people who must achieve it. Feedback must be a company norm that people are trained in, and it must be encouraged and rewarded. On the personal front, the keys for the leader are self-awareness and self-management. Being selfaware is, in efect, believing there’s a camera flming every move one makes, a humbling mindset COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4 that encourages leaders to view themselves as followers do. The leader must make the choice to let others in on their thinking; the right people could include a board member and direct reports with the skills and the license to ofer advice. Managing stress must be a priority. Depending on the leader’s needs and personality, doing so could include such steps as structure or personnel changes, restructuring one’s administrative system to conserve time, wise use of a balanced set of trusted advisors who act as honest brokers, and tending to one’s overall wellness, perhaps through an exercise program or meditation. Charisma, when it’s based on deep conviction of shared success and when it’s skillfully projected, can help a leader be very efective and an organization thrive even during difcult times. But avoiding its dark side requires the leader to add attention to the culture, self-awareness, selfmanagement, and, perhaps most of all, the humility necessary to truly listen. Dan Ciampa (DC@danciampa.com) is a former CEO, an adviser to boards and chief executives, and the author of five books, including Transitions at the Top: What Organizations Must Do to Make Sure New Leaders Succeed (with David L. Dotlich, Wiley, 2015) and Right from the Start: Taking Charge in a New Leadership Role (with Michael Watkins, Harvard Business Review Press, 1999). COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5 Copyright of Harvard Business Review Digital Articles is the property of Harvard Business School Publication Corp. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.



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Academic Research Essay Outline



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Academic Research Essay Outline

Topic: You may choose your topic so long as it specifically relates to law, society, &/or justice.  The only topics you may not write about are abortion, death penalty, or marijuana.

 

Part 1: Outline the Following Preliminary Ideas for Your Essay:

 

 

 

  1. Thesis statement-A one-sentence, overall argument that you assert or your take-away message—a “should”-type statement.

 

  1. A topic sentence for your background information paragraph.  This sentence should convey the overall meaning of the paragraph.

 

III.            A “reason” topic sentence.  A reason provides a “why” or “because” the thesis statement is true.  This sentence states the overall meaning or concept that will be covered in the paragraph.

 

  1. Another “reason” topic sentence.  A reason provides a “why” or “because” the thesis statement is true.  This sentence states the overall meaning or concept that will be covered in the paragraph.

 

  1. Another “reason” topic sentence.  A reason provides a “why” or “because” the thesis statement is true.  This sentence states the overall meaning or concept that will be covered in the paragraph.

 

Part 2: Write one full paragraph that explains how the topic you chose relates to law, society, &/or justice.

 



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Management of Diabetes



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– Total Value 60% – Due Date: Monday 30th October 2017 by 11:59 pm –

 

 

Objectives:

 

  1. To critically examine and review specific strategies recommended for use by an interdisciplinary team for the prevention, management OR rehabilitation of a chronic condition

 

  1. To apply chronic disease prevention, management or rehabilitation strategy review findings to a chronic condition to meet the needs of a specific population in a particular setting

 

  1. To synthesise and interpret relevant readings into a coherent report.

 

TASK

 

Using the same chronic condition chosen for Assignment 1:

 

  • Choose a specific population and a setting for your Professional Action Plan. Both population and setting can be hypothetical or real.
  • Develop an ‘Aim’ and threeM.A.R.T. objectives (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely) for the prevention, management OR rehabilitation of the selected chronic condition (from Assignment 1) to meet the needs of your specific population.
  • Critically examine strategies that can address your aim and objectives for the prevention, management or rehabilitation of your chosen chronic condition.
  • Create a professional action plan based on the chosen strategies for use by an interdisciplinary team for the prevention, management or rehabilitation of the selected chronic condition to meet the needs of your specific population

 

As an academic report, your assignment should have an introduction, a body and a conclusion. Some suggested content to cover in your report includes:

 

 

  • A title page (your name coordinator’s name, date,

and student number, title of unit, title of assignment, unit total word count)

 

 

  • A brief introduction to your chronic condition

 

  • A description of your setting, population or subpopulation of choice

 

  • Your aim and three S.M.A.R.T objectives

 

  • A discussion of your chosen specific strategies to address your aim and objectives. This discussion should include the strategies’ strengths and limitations, and evidence of their effectiveness (e.g. previous studies, systematic reviews, etc) in the prevention, management OR rehabilitation of the selected chronic condition

 

  • Your professional action plan (see template attached)

 

  • Conclusions

 

 

1

 

 

title page and references Formatting

 

  • Font size 11pt or 12pt

 

  • 5 or double line spacing

 

  • Standard 2.5cm margins

 

  • APA referencing

 

  • Page numbers

 

  • Student name and number in header or footer

 

  • Use of subheadings is highly recommende

 

Action Plan Template

 

Aim:

 

Objective Strategy Actions Outcome measures Outcome indicators   By who? Timeline

 

1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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developing an evaluation plan for a public health care program of your choice



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REPORT ON DEVELOPING AN EVALUATION PLAN
This assignment requires you to focus on developing an evaluation plan for a public health care program of your choice. Your report will analyse the issues that arise in the planning process and the decisions that need to be made. You will need to select a public health program with which you are familiar. This may be a whole program or project, or in the case of a large initiative, a discrete part of it. To avoid confusion, you are advised to choose a program or part that has clearly defined goals, objectives and strategies.

Your analytical report must include the following:
• Introduction and conclusion (total 500 words)
• Summary of the evaluation plan (may be a full summary or in the case of a large program a sample of the overall plan) to be submitted in table format as per the proforma over the page. (500 words)
• Rationale for your evaluation plan addressing key design issues that are relevant to your example. For example, you should address and justify decisions about scope, timing, stakeholders, who will undertake the evaluation, process/impact/ outcome evaluation questions, ethical and political issues and appropriate methods etc. (1000 words)
• Analysis of the main factors that you think will influence the successful dissemination and utilisation of the evaluation findings (500 words)

Format to be followed
• Introduction – 1) Program chosen 2) Description of the program 3) Evaluation plan table 4) Rational – detail for evaluation plan 5) Strategies for successful dissemination and utilization of the evaluation report
• Description of the program
• Table for Evaluation Plan – Title and Goal
• Rationale – Details for evaluation plan for making it successful + Justify why is it useful
• Strategies for SDU (Successful Dissemination Utilization)
• Conclusion 

• References

Assignment 3 – Report on developing an evaluation plan

This assignment requires you to focus on developing an evaluation plan for a public health care program of your choice. Your report will analyse the issues that arise in the planning process and the decisions that need to be made. You will need to select a public health program with which you are familiar. This may be a whole program or project, or in the case of a large initiative, a discrete part of it. To avoid confusion, you are advised to choose a program or part that has clearly defined goals, objectives and strategies.

 

Your analytical report must include the following:

  • Introduction and conclusion (total 500 words)
  • Summary of the evaluation plan (may be a full summary or in the case of a large program a sample of the overall plan) to be submitted in table format as per the proforma over the page. (500 words)
  • Rationale for your evaluation plan addressing key design issues that are relevant to your example. For example, you should address and justify decisions about scope, timing, stakeholders, who will undertake the evaluation, process/impact/ outcome evaluation questions, ethical and political issues and appropriate methods etc. (1000 words)
  • Analysis of the main factors that you think will influence the successful dissemination and utilisation of the evaluation findings (500 words)

 

Format to be followed

  • Introduction – 1) Program chosen 2) Description of the program 3) Evaluation plan table 4) Rational – detail for evaluation plan 5) Strategies for successful dissemination and utilization of the evaluation report
  • Description of the program
  • Table for Evaluation Plan – Title and Goal
  • Rationale – Details for evaluation plan for making it successful + Justify why is it useful
  • Strategies for SDU (Successful Dissemination Utilization)
  • Conclusion
  • References

Goal: Overall aim

Objectives Strategies Process Indicators Data Collection Methods of Process Indicat Impact/Outcome Indicators Data Collection Methods of 2 Effect Indicators
Sub-aim that’s measurable – specify amount of change and timeframe, e.g. 50% of population aware of risk factors for heart disease within 3 years what you will do – activities) Measure strategies Howyou measure strategies in Process Eval Impact(short term measures of Objectives according to Hawe et al. 1990)OR

Outcome (short term according to Issel 2009)

Outcome (long term measures of Goal according to Hawe et al. 1990 terms)

OR

Impact (long term according to Issel 2009)

How will you measure objectives in short term Eval 

 

 

 

 

 

How will you measure goals in long term Eval

 

Essay structure for assignments

Before you embark on writing your assignment you may wish to develop a 1 page an essay outline. This may consist of the headings and subheadings you intend using. The headings are likely to represent the key components and keywords of the essay question.

Read the assignment question before, during, and after you have completed the essay outline and do the same for the essay.

  • Introduction – state the question and your approach to answering it.
  • Body of text – when you present an argument make it a cogent argument that has academic/scholarly merit. Support arguments with evidence, e.g. by citing a reference. Headings and sub-headings to be used – headings often reflect keywords in the assignment question
  • Conclusion – not so much a place to summarize but an opportunity to give your final opinion. Inferences or deductions.  Implications for policy and practice
  • Reference list – follow one of the standard academic styles, such as Harvard or Vancouver.

 

Text and References – Follow in-line referencing

 

There are 2 required texts for this topic, however only the first one is available for purchase while the others are available in the library:

 

  • Issel, M. L. (2014). Health Program Planning and Evaluation: A Practical Systematic Approach for Community Health, 3rd Edition. Burlington MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning
  • Weiss, C. (1998). Evaluation methods for studying programs and policies. 2nd edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

In addition the following texts will be referred to:

  • Pawson R. & Tilley N (1997) Realistic Evaluation, London Sage Publications

(portions of the textbook are available for viewing through Amazon Books: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Realistic-Evaluation-Ray-Pawson/dp/0761950095#reader_0761950095)

The 2004 Discussion Paper included at the end of this Study Guide is based on this 1997 referencehttp://www.communitymatters.com.au/RE_chapter.pdf

Pawson, R. & Tiley, N. (2004). ‘Realist Evaluation’. Paper funded by the British Cabinet Office. This paper develops ideas from the well-known book: Pawson, R. & Tiley, N. (1995). Realist Evaluation. London: Sage.

  • Pawson R. (2006) Evidence-based Policy: A Realist Perspective. Los Angeles: Sage Publications
  • Saks, M & Allsop J (2013) Researching Health: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods (2nd Edition).  Los Angeles: Sage Publications
  • Bauman A. & Nutbeam D.  (2014). Evaluation in a Nutshell: A Practical Guide to Evaluation of Health Promotion Programs (2nd Edition). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill

These texts will also be useful:

  • Baum, Fran (2008). The New Public Health: an Australian Perspective (3rdedition). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
  • Jackie Green and Jane South (2006). Evaluation: Key Concepts for Public Health Practice. Berkshire, England: Open University Press

[First part of this book can be found online: http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Zu-JX77waQoC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&dq=key+concepts+in+public+health+evaluation+jackie+green&source=bl&ots=0n0Cam1Rzd&sig=Nx3xtCLj9lr-x0bvCXdJTW76j4o&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wyFKU-aVJNjm8AXN94DoDg&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=key%20concepts%20in%20public%20health%20evaluation%20jackie%20green&f=false

 

Guidelines for all assessments – please read carefully as your assignment will be marked against these criteria

To meet the requirements of all assignments you must include the following:

  • An introduction explaining what you will cover. Refer to the question and describe what your approach will be in answering it.  (10%)
  • A conclusion – present your final opinion. (10%)
  • Analysis that shows ability to interpret information relevant to your topic (20%)
  • Application of theories to practical situations or examples wherever relevant. (20%)
  • Arguments (not just descriptions) that are well supported by explanation, examples and references to literature. (20%)
  • Compliance with normal academic standards of presentation, referencing, headings, and bibliographical details. (10%). Note: in accordance to university policy any issues regarding plagiarism will attract a zero mark for the entire assignment
  • Clear writing with accurate spelling, grammar and sentence and paragraph construction. (10%)


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HLTEN510B Implement and monitor nursing care for clients with mental health conditions



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HLTEN510B Implement and monitor nursing care for clients with mental health conditions
ASSESSMENTS AND MARKING GUIDES
Assessment for Mental Health will involve:
• Assessment Task 1 Short answer questions on Moodle 50%
• Assessment Task 2 Role Play 70%
• Assessment Task 3 Written Report 70%
This report will be handed to the educator at the conclusion of the role play
Working individually, you will write a report on the topic assigned by your teacher for a mental health disorder.
Research this condition, which must be classified under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM IV).
You will be required to make a presentation of this illness in the form of an interview and be required to answer questions on the nature, cause and risks inherent within the illness.
This assessment will be presented during session 14.
ASSESSMENT TASK 2 : ROLE PLAY / INTERVIEW / PRESENTATION
Group presentation role play as nurse, family and patient( Topic Delirium)
Step 1 : Outline the scenario and identify the problems that lead to the patient presenting to hospital for admission.
These details should present a clear understanding of how the disorder impairs the person’s ability to live a normal life.
Step 2: Select a person to be interviewed as the patient.
This person will present as clearly as possible, evidence of the signs and symptoms of the disorder and capture some of the emotive issues that accompany the disorder.
Step 3: Outline the type of treatment likely to be received including medications, therapies and nursing interventions. This presentation should also include information on after hospital care.
Step 4: Present the potential risk issues of nursing clients with this disorder and the risks likely to be faced in the inpatient setting. You must also provide an indication of the prognosis of disorder:
a) if treated and responding to therapies
b) if untreated.
ASSESSMENT TASK 2: WRITTEN REPORT
• You also need to submit a written report of 1000 words in length (+/- 10 %)
• You need to use Harvard referencing where appropriate.
• Your written should be double spaced
This report is due with the role play presentation on session 14.

This report will need to cover the following five required areas:
TOPIC IS DELIRIUM
1 The occurrence of the disorder (Occurrence – Patterns and frequency).
2 The aetiology of the disorder (Aetiology = All the factors involved in causing the disorder).
3 The clinical presentation of individuals with the disorder/ manifestation (signs and symptoms).
4 The therapeutic and nursing interventions utilised to manage and or alleviate the disorder. (For nursing interventions use NANDA nursing diagnosis and think about nursing interventions from these diagnoses. Use the nursing process).
5 Identify relevant health and community services/agencies available to support individuals and or families with this particular mental health disorders.
You may like to collect relevant brochures, pamphlets and other primary health material relevant to this disorder and submit them with your assignment.
HLTEN510B Implement and monitor nursing care for clients with mental health conditions
ASSESSMENT MARKING GUIDE:
Assessment Task 2 : Oral Presentation / Interview
STUDENT NAME: __________________________________________________
STUDENT GROUP: _________________________________________________
DATE: ____________________ Lecturer: ____________________________
Assessment Criteria – Oral Presentation / Role Play Mark
Presentation of details, outline of scenario, identifies the problems that lead to the patient presenting to hospital for admission. These details should present a clear understanding of how the disorder impairs the person’s ability to live a normal life. Excellent content
Very good content
Good content
Average content
Poor content 5
4
3
2
1
One person will be interviewed as the patient; this person will present as clearly as possible evidence of the signs and symptoms of the disorder and capture some of the emotive issues that accompany the disorder. Excellent content
Very good content
Good content
Average content
Poor content 5
4
3
2
1
One person will outline the type of treatment likely to be received including medications therapies and nursing interventions. This presentation should also include information on after hospital care. Excellent content
Very good content
Good content
Average content
Poor content 5
4
3
2
1
One person to present the potential risk issues of nursing clients with this disorder and the risks likely to be faced in the inpatient setting. You must also provide an indication of prognosis of disorder: a) if treated and responding to therapies and b) if untreated. Excellent content
Very good content
Good content
Average content
Poor content 5
4
3
2
1
Team work:
• Did the students work as a team to put the presentation together?
• Did the role play / presentation demonstrate clarity and fluency? Excellent team work
Very good team work
Good team work
Average team work
Poor team work 5
4
3
2
1
Comments
Assessor Name:
Assessor Signature
Date:

HLTEN510B Implement and monitor nursing care for clients with mental health conditions
ASSESSMENT MARKING GUIDE
Assessment Task 3 : Written Report
STUDENT NAME: ________________________________________________________
STUDENT GROUP: ________________________________________________________
DATE: ____________________ Lecturer: ___________________________________
CRITERIA Marks allocated Mark achieved
• Understanding of the key issues Excellent understanding
Very good understanding
Poor understanding 5
4
3
• Report addresses five required area’s Addresses all five area’s comprehensively
Addresses all five area’s briefly
Addresses area’s poorly or not at all 5
4
3
• Evidence of background reading and research Excellent research
Very good research
Poor research 5
4
3
• There is clarity of ideas and thoughts
Excellent clarity
Very good clarity
Poor clarity 4
3
2
Report is accompanied by relevant pamphlets and brochures Excellent relevant material
Sufficient relevant material
No relevant material produced
3
2
1
Referencing
• Other authors’ work is acknowledged
• In text referencing follows accepted format
• Reference list is provided
• Reference list follows accepted format Excellent referencing
Good referencing
Poor referencing 3
2
1
Comments Weighting 25% of total mark
/25
Lecturer Signature: ________________ Date: ___________________________



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Workplace conflict management



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Please read the facts and relevant Policy documents which I will upload.
Once you have read the relevant facts and polices your assessment task is to prepare a report for the Company,
which should include:
1. An outline of the relevant issues.
2. The possible processes that might by employed to resolve those issues. This should include interest
based processes, and rights based processes. This also may include processes external to the
Company’s internal Policy and Procedures.
3. The risks and benefits that the company will need to consider in choosing the process/es it will apply to
resolve the issues.
4. Your recommendations as to which process or processes the company should employ to resolve the issue
and why you are making that recommendation.
5. Your report will also include a ‘Discussion’ (500 words) on whether the company should consider
implementing a policy and procedure on the use of ‘social media’ and what might be included in such a
policy and procedure. Your work must be supported by reference to relevant legislation or authorities.

Please read the facts and relevant Policy documents which I will send.

Once you have read the relevant facts and polices your assessment task is to prepare a report for the Company,
which should include:
1. An outline of the relevant issues.
2. The possible processes that might by employed to resolve those issues. This should include interest
based processes, and rights based processes. This also may include processes external to the
Company’s internal Policy and Procedures.
3. The risks and benefits that the company will need to consider in choosing the process/es it will apply to
resolve the issues.
4. Your recommendations as to which process or processes the company should employ to resolve the issue
and why you are making that recommendation.
5. Your report will also include a ‘Discussion’ (500 words) on whether the company should consider
implementing a policy and procedure on the use of ‘social media’ and what might be included in such a
policy and procedure. Your work must be supported by reference to relevant legislation or authorities.

1.         POLICY

Sledge Harbour Marine recognises that there is always the potential for differences to arise at the workplace. In most instances the different views people hold will be reconciled by discussion. However, in some cases differences about an issue are not resolved and tensions rise to the point where the people involved are in conflict. The unresolved conflict then leads to breakdown in the work relationships, diminished morale and work ineffectiveness.

Sledge Harbour Marine takes the view that wherever possible attempts should be made to resolve grievances locally and informally without the need for formal management. It is only when informal processes are unsuccessful or inappropriate that a formal grievance should be able to be lodged. In providing for a formal system of resolving grievances, Sledge Harbour Marine is committed to ensuring that all grievances are dealt with in a fair and impartial manner.

2.         PROCEDURE

Informal Resolution

Where a work issue arises between staff they are encouraged to try to resolve the matter informally between them.

Where a staff member feels they cannot resolve the issue with the other person/s concerned, the staff member should raise their concern with the other person’s supervisor/manager. The supervisor/managers responsibility then includes:

  • advising the aggrieved employee of the principles and procedures contained in this P&P;
  • making any necessary enquires to ascertain the facts of the matter;
  • encouraging, supporting and assisting the employee to attempt to resolve the matter informally by communicating the nature and details of the difficulty to the other employee(s) concerned;
  • ensuring the affected employees understand the principles of natural justice;
  • providing guidance and clarification with respect to operational issues that may relate to the issues being raised;
  • advising the staff member of formal procedures for lodging grievances should informal resolution fail.

When can a formal grievance be lodged?

A formal grievance may be lodged by an employee under this P&P if:

  • an administrative decision which adversely affects them is unfair or unreasonable; or
  • the conduct of an employee, agent or contractor of Sledge Harbour Marine which adversely affects them is unfair or unreasonable; or
  • the behaviour of an employee, whether by action or inaction, constitutes sexual harassment or workplace harassment.

A grievance may not be lodged under this policy:

  • by an employee unless that employee has made reasonable endeavours to resolve the matter informally, or in the alternative Sledge Harbour Marine Manager determines that informal resolution is not reasonable or appropriate; or
  • about a matter that is the subject of another dispute resolution process; or
  • about a decision to discipline an employee.

How to lodge a Grievance

A grievance must be lodged in written form (See Attachment “A”), and specify the following:

  • whether the employee attempted to resolve the matter informally, or if not why that didn’t happen;
  • the grounds for the employee lodging the grievance – eg workplace harassment.

Unless the grievance relates to the Sledge Harbour Marine Manager, a grievance can only be lodged directly with the Manager of the Company.

A grievance about an administrative decision (other than a decision or determination in relation to the resolution of a grievance) or conduct of the Sledge Harbour Marine Manager may be lodged in writing with the Chair of the Board of The Company.

Mediation

Sledge Harbour Marine Manager may, with the agreement of the parties and within two working days of receiving the grievance, initiate mediation between the parties. Unless otherwise agreed between the parties, the mediation must be completed within 14 calendar days of commencement of the mediation process.

In considering whether mediation is an option for resolving a grievance, the Manager must take into account the following considerations:

  • whether there is a reasonable apprehension of the parties not acting in good faith at the mediation; or
  • whether the parties voluntarily consent to go to mediation; or
  • whether there is a power imbalance between the parties that cannot be offset by the presence of the mediator; or
  • whether there is evidence that the process would cause unreasonable psychological stress to a party.

Where:

  • the Sledge Harbour Marine Manager determines that mediation is not an appropriate process; or
  • mediation fails to resolve the grievance; or
  • the parties to a grievance decline to mediate

the Sledge Harbour Marine Manager is promptly to engage the services of an independent investigator to investigate the grievance.

 

Investigation

Where the Sledge Harbour Marine Manager appoints an investigator, upon completion of the investigation the investigator shall prepare a report for submission to the Sledge Harbour Marine Manager setting out:

  • Terms of the investigation;
  • The investigation process;
  • The findings of the investigation;
  • (Recommendations may include, but are not necessarily limited to, training, counselling, disciplinary action, or revision of work procedures and/or structures).

If the Investigation Report contains adverse findings or recommendations that affect the complainant or the respondent, prior to making a decision on the investigation report, and before the expiration of 7 days from the date of receiving the Report,  Sledge Harbour Marine Manager must give the person/s adversely affected a written copy of the findings and recommendations of the investigator. The person receiving the adverse findings or recommendations has 7 days from receipt within which to make written submissions to the Manager about the adverse findings.

After considering the findings, recommendations and any comments on the same, the Manager shall make a decision on the investigation.

Other Relevant Issues in the Grievance Process

Work to continue

Unless otherwise provided by law, while the grievance procedure is being followed, normal work must continue  unless –

  • there is a substantial risk to the persons involved or The Company; or
  • unless otherwise agreed.

Representation

An employee of Sledge Harbour Marine involved in a grievance may consult with, or be represented by, their Union representative.

If an employee is not a member of a union, the employee may have a support person present during any interviews or meetings conducted during a mediation or investigation process. A support person is not to act as advocate.

A party to a grievance may not be represented by a lawyer, other than a lawyer who is an employee of an industrial association or an employee of The Company.

Confidentiality

The existence of a grievance and the content of the grievance are strictly confidentialexcept for employees with a formal role in the investigation or resolution of a grievance, or in any subsequent disciplinary process.  Any person with direct or indirect knowledge of the matter is not to discuss the matter with any other person, unless given formal authority to do so.

 

3.         DEFINITIONS AND KEY WORDS

“Administrative decision” is a decision made by Sledge Harbour Marine in relation to the administration of its affairs  and includes the failure to make a decision.

“Sledge Harbour Marine employee”  means a  permanent, temporary and casual employees employed under a ‘contract of services’.

“Independent investigator” means a person from within or without Sledge Harbour Marine who has no conflict of interests in the matter the subject of the investigation and is acceptable to the parties.

“Mediation” means the process by which disputing parties, together with the assistance of an acceptable, impartial and neutral third party who has no authoritative decision-making power, systematically isolate disputed issues in order to develop options, consider alternatives, and reach a consensual settlement that will accommodate their needs.

“Sexual harassment” has the meaning given to it by section 119 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991.

“Workplace harassment” is defined in the Workplace Harassment P&P.

4.         ACTION ON NON-COMPLIANCE

An employee who –

  • breaches the confidentiality provisions of this P&P,

Or

  • acts in reprisal against another employee, contractor or agent for lodging a grievance, or from responding to an issue raised by another employee,

will be subject to disciplinary action which may include termination of employment.

 

5.         RELATED DOCUMENTS

Prevention And Management Of Workplace Harassment

 

 

ATTACHMENT “A”

 

 

 

Sledge Harbour Marine Pty Ltd  (The Company):GRIEVANCE FORM
TO BE COMPLETED BY THE EMPLOYEE

 

Name: Position: Location: Supervisor:

 

I understand that prior to filing a formal grievance, an attempt should be made to resolve the matter informally with the other party/ies.

q   I did attempt to resolve the matter informally.

qI did not attempt to resolve the matter informally, because _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Please state your grievance below: (continue on a separate sheet if necessary)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signed:   Date:  
Date received by Manager:  

 



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developing an evaluation plan for a public health care program of your choice



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REPORT ON DEVELOPING AN EVALUATION PLAN
This assignment requires you to focus on developing an evaluation plan for a public health care program of your choice. Your report will analyse the issues that arise in the planning process and the decisions that need to be made. You will need to select a public health program with which you are familiar. This may be a whole program or project, or in the case of a large initiative, a discrete part of it. To avoid confusion, you are advised to choose a program or part that has clearly defined goals, objectives and strategies.

Your analytical report must include the following:
• Introduction and conclusion (total 500 words)
• Summary of the evaluation plan (may be a full summary or in the case of a large program a sample of the overall plan) to be submitted in table format as per the proforma over the page. (500 words)
• Rationale for your evaluation plan addressing key design issues that are relevant to your example. For example, you should address and justify decisions about scope, timing, stakeholders, who will undertake the evaluation, process/impact/ outcome evaluation questions, ethical and political issues and appropriate methods etc. (1000 words)
• Analysis of the main factors that you think will influence the successful dissemination and utilisation of the evaluation findings (500 words)

Format to be followed
• Introduction – 1) Program chosen 2) Description of the program 3) Evaluation plan table 4) Rational – detail for evaluation plan 5) Strategies for successful dissemination and utilization of the evaluation report
• Description of the program
• Table for Evaluation Plan – Title and Goal
• Rationale – Details for evaluation plan for making it successful + Justify why is it useful
• Strategies for SDU (Successful Dissemination Utilization)
• Conclusion
• References

Assignment 3 – Report on developing an evaluation plan

This assignment requires you to focus on developing an evaluation plan for a public health care program of your choice. Your report will analyse the issues that arise in the planning process and the decisions that need to be made. You will need to select a public health program with which you are familiar. This may be a whole program or project, or in the case of a large initiative, a discrete part of it. To avoid confusion, you are advised to choose a program or part that has clearly defined goals, objectives and strategies.

 

Your analytical report must include the following:

  • Introduction and conclusion (total 500 words)
  • Summary of the evaluation plan (may be a full summary or in the case of a large program a sample of the overall plan) to be submitted in table format as per the proforma over the page. (500 words)
  • Rationale for your evaluation plan addressing key design issues that are relevant to your example. For example, you should address and justify decisions about scope, timing, stakeholders, who will undertake the evaluation, process/impact/ outcome evaluation questions, ethical and political issues and appropriate methods etc. (1000 words)
  • Analysis of the main factors that you think will influence the successful dissemination and utilisation of the evaluation findings (500 words)

 

Format to be followed

  • Introduction – 1) Program chosen 2) Description of the program 3) Evaluation plan table 4) Rational – detail for evaluation plan 5) Strategies for successful dissemination and utilization of the evaluation report
  • Description of the program
  • Table for Evaluation Plan – Title and Goal
  • Rationale – Details for evaluation plan for making it successful + Justify why is it useful
  • Strategies for SDU (Successful Dissemination Utilization)
  • Conclusion
  • References

Goal: Overall aim

Objectives Strategies Process Indicators Data Collection Methods of Process Indicat Impact/Outcome Indicators Data Collection Methods of 2 Effect Indicators
Sub-aim that’s measurable – specify amount of change and timeframe, e.g. 50% of population aware of risk factors for heart disease within 3 years what you will do – activities) Measure strategies Howyou measure strategies in Process Eval Impact(short term measures of Objectives according to Hawe et al. 1990)OROutcome (short term according to Issel 2009)

Outcome (long term measures of Goal according to Hawe et al. 1990 terms)

OR

Impact (long term according to Issel 2009)

How will you measure objectives in short term Eval  

 

 

 

 

How will you measure goals in long term Eval

 

Essay structure for assignments

Before you embark on writing your assignment you may wish to develop a 1 page an essay outline. This may consist of the headings and subheadings you intend using. The headings are likely to represent the key components and keywords of the essay question.

Read the assignment question before, during, and after you have completed the essay outline and do the same for the essay.

  • Introduction – state the question and your approach to answering it.
  • Body of text – when you present an argument make it a cogent argument that has academic/scholarly merit. Support arguments with evidence, e.g. by citing a reference. Headings and sub-headings to be used – headings often reflect keywords in the assignment question
  • Conclusion – not so much a place to summarize but an opportunity to give your final opinion. Inferences or deductions.  Implications for policy and practice
  • Reference list – follow one of the standard academic styles, such as Harvard or Vancouver.

 

Text and References – Follow in-line referencing

 

There are 2 required texts for this topic, however only the first one is available for purchase while the others are available in the library:

 

  • Issel, M. L. (2014). Health Program Planning and Evaluation: A Practical Systematic Approach for Community Health, 3rd Edition. Burlington MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning
  • Weiss, C. (1998). Evaluation methods for studying programs and policies. 2nd edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

In addition the following texts will be referred to:

  • Pawson R. & Tilley N (1997) Realistic Evaluation, London Sage Publications

(portions of the textbook are available for viewing through Amazon Books: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Realistic-Evaluation-Ray-Pawson/dp/0761950095#reader_0761950095)

The 2004 Discussion Paper included at the end of this Study Guide is based on this 1997 reference. http://www.communitymatters.com.au/RE_chapter.pdf

Pawson, R. & Tiley, N. (2004). ‘Realist Evaluation’. Paper funded by the British Cabinet Office. This paper develops ideas from the well-known book: Pawson, R. & Tiley, N. (1995). Realist Evaluation. London: Sage.

  • Pawson R. (2006) Evidence-based Policy: A Realist Perspective. Los Angeles: Sage Publications
  • Saks, M & Allsop J (2013) Researching Health: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods (2nd Edition).  Los Angeles: Sage Publications
  • Bauman A. & Nutbeam D.  (2014). Evaluation in a Nutshell: A Practical Guide to Evaluation of Health Promotion Programs (2nd Edition). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill

These texts will also be useful:

  • Baum, Fran (2008). The New Public Health: an Australian Perspective (3rdedition). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
  • Jackie Green and Jane South (2006). Evaluation: Key Concepts for Public Health Practice. Berkshire, England: Open University Press

[First part of this book can be found online: http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Zu-JX77waQoC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&dq=key+concepts+in+public+health+evaluation+jackie+green&source=bl&ots=0n0Cam1Rzd&sig=Nx3xtCLj9lr-x0bvCXdJTW76j4o&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wyFKU-aVJNjm8AXN94DoDg&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=key%20concepts%20in%20public%20health%20evaluation%20jackie%20green&f=false

 

Guidelines for all assessments – please read carefully as your assignment will be marked against these criteria

To meet the requirements of all assignments you must include the following:

  • An introduction explaining what you will cover. Refer to the question and describe what your approach will be in answering it.  (10%)
  • A conclusion – present your final opinion. (10%)
  • Analysis that shows ability to interpret information relevant to your topic (20%)
  • Application of theories to practical situations or examples wherever relevant. (20%)
  • Arguments (not just descriptions) that are well supported by explanation, examples and references to literature. (20%)
  • Compliance with normal academic standards of presentation, referencing, headings, and bibliographical details. (10%). Note: in accordance to university policy any issues regarding plagiarism will attract a zero mark for the entire assignment
  • Clear writing with accurate spelling, grammar and sentence and paragraph construction. (10%)

 



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Disscussion questions. At least 150- 200 words each with references.



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1 Identify one area of nursing research that has improved patient outcomes. State the study and its impact on patient care. How have these findings changed your nursing practice?

2 What similarities and differences can you identify between the nursing process and the research process? Explain your answer.

3 Nursing research is used to study a dilemma or a problem in nursing. Examine a



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