This document is an overview of the sections you’ll commonly need in a proposal. With the exception of front and back matter, don’t assume that each category has to be in the actual proposal you write, or that the sections have to be in the exact order listed. You may discover that information not mentioned will be included in your particular proposal. Review the following:
□ Cover letter or transmittal letter
□ Title page
□ Abstract/executive summary
□ Table of Contents
□ Background on the problem, opportunity, or situation
□ Benefits and feasibility of the proposal
□ Description of the proposed work
□ Method, procedure, theory
□ Costs analysis
□ Resources required
□ Works Cited
□ Visual Aides
Organization of Proposals
As for the organization of the content of a proposal, remember that the report is essentially a sales or persuasive document. Here are the basic steps to cover:
Introduce the proposal, telling the reader its purpose and contents.
Present the background—the problem, opportunity, or situation.
Get the reader concerned about the problem or excited about the opportunity.
State what you propose do about the problem.
Tell the reader how to take advantage of the opportunity.
Discuss the benefits and advantages of the proposal.
Provide a schedule that includes milestones and checkpoints.
Briefly list your qualifications for the project.
Now, list the costs and resources required for the project.
Conclude with a review of reasons and benefits of the proposal.
Business Proposal Topic: School need to organize more social activity
transition to problem
Combine information into a concise statement.
Phase 1: (work cited)
Search online databases/browsers, etc. and find secondary research for your final project.
Post two research sources (URL’s) from these search results.
Briefly state the secondary content; how will you use this data for your proposal?
Underneath each content description, cut/past the source URL.
Provide the associated formal MLA reference.
Follow MLA formatting requirements; references format with a hanging indent.
Primary Research Instrument
For most projects, secondary research needs to be supplemented with primary data. Primary research includes the following data collection methods: Survey. (Gathers information through questionnaires, telephone, or e-mail inquiries.) Interviews. (Gathers information from individuals/field experts.)
Primary data is the most difficult for the researcher to acquire. Developing primary research instruments is an art–uh…to say the least. Properly developing these instruments takes time, knowledge, education, and persistence. Data is only as good as the instrument used to obtain the information. It’s always best to use nominal, Likert scale, or multiple choice responses. Open-ended questions are extremely hard to develop, consolidate, and usually don’t provide precise information.
Interviewees and survey audiences always have limited time; therefore, when developing instruments ask precise questions that yield information relevant to the research. Make sure the questions developed cannot be answered with existing secondary data.
Create the primary research instrument for your proposal study (survey, questionnaire, or interview).
Develop only 6-12 questions. For surveys and questionnaires, provide forced answer choice responses.
Check questions to make sure no ambiguity is present; do not ask multiple questions within one question.
Informed Consent Form
By law, all research that involves human subjects must include an informed consent signed by the researcher and subject(s). This document acts as a legal contract between both parities. The form gives the researcher permission to use the subject’s responses, behavior, or activities, and data derived thereof, within the specified research project. This form must also include the delineators involved with the study and the researcher’s future plans for the data. It must state “if” anonymity is provided to the subject. When creating written content for an informed consent, the researcher must be careful not to reveal too much information about the study, or his or her anticipated results will sway. Skewed results of any kind, invalidates the research.
The primary research instrument and informed consent form will be in the final proposal as Back Matter (Appendix A and Appendix B).
Sample Informed Consent Form：
My name is (name of researcher), and I am a student at (state campus), I am inviting you to participate in an academic research study. Involvement in this study is voluntary, so you may choose to participate or not. A description of this study follows: (provide brief, concise study overview). I am interested in learning more about (research topic). My learning objectives are related to my formal education pursuits. This information will be used in a business proposal for my upper- division writing class Management 306: Expository Writing for Administration during the (state academic term and year).
(Describe what the subject will be asked to do). (State how much time the subject’s participation will take.) There are NO risks to while participating in this study. (Any research that involves risk, of any kind, to the subject can NOT take place.)
If you no longer wish to continue, you have the right to withdraw from the study, without penalty, at any time. All information for this study will be kept (either confidential, in the case where subjects’ identities need to be retained or can be associated with their response, or anonymous and confidential, in the case where data collection does not allow responses to be connected with a particular subject).
I have been assured that the information I provide in this study will be destroyed after the researcher consolidates data. There will be no permanent record of my participation in this study.
I________________________________am a willing participant in this study. (Participant’s name)
Signature of participant: __________________________________
Print name of participant: _________________________________
Signature of researcher: __________________________________
Print name of researcher: _________________________________
Page 1: Cover Letter or Memo or E-mail
Page 2: Title or Cover Page
Page 3: Abstract or Executive Summary
Page 4: Table of Contents
Body, with Headings and Subheadings
Resources, Cost and Timelines
Page: 8: Works Cited/References (At least 2 secondary sources)
Page 9: Appendix I: Informed Consent Form
Page 10: Appendix II: Primary Research Instrument
Internal proposals require a memo or e-mail; external proposals require a letter. Use persuasive techniques to write this document.
If a graphic is not applicable in the body of the proposal, place it on the Title or Cover Page.