Archives

Transformation From Data to Information to Knowledge to Wisdom (DIKW)



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

NR-512 NURSING INFORMATICS

Readings are as follows:

McGonigle, D. & Mastrian, K. (2015). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

  • Chapter 6: Overview of Nursing Informatics

References

American Nurses Association. (2008). Nursing informatics: Scope and standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD: Nursebooks.org.

International Medical Informatics Association-Nursing Informatics Workgroup (IMIA-NI). (2009). Definition. Retrieved from http://imianews.wordpress.com/2009/08/24/imia-ni-definition-of-nursing-informatics-updated

 

Page or paragraph numbers must be included with quotes per APA. See APA re how to format references and in-text citations i.e. capitalization issues and use of the ampersand versus the word (“and”).

Including at least one in-text citation and matching reference.

Check for grammar and spellings

Discussion- Transformation From Data to Information to Knowledge to Wisdom (DIKW) in Practice (graded)

Describe a nursing-practice situation in which you experienced the transformations of DIKW.

The course outcomes guiding our discussion continue to be CO #1 & CO #2:

CO 1: Define key terms in informatics, healthcare informatics, and nursing informatics.

CO 2: Recognize the importance of synthesizing nursing science with computer, information, and cognitive sciences.

In this question you are asked to describe something:

  1. Firstyou will need to define/describe DIKW (be sure to write out the words for this acronym the first time you use it, don’t just write ‘DIKW’, you will loose points if you do not properly define the acronym!). Break the parts down and tell us what is meant by each item/part of this process and what this process is. This will be your first paragraph/first few sentences.
  2. Second, the body of your post is where you will tell us your story of when YOU EXPERIENCED this transformation. Don’t just tell us about the process of transformation only and in general/generic terms (yes, tell us about it in general and generic terms in section one above, but don’t stop there, that is not enough. Many people do not discuss their personal transformation and they loose application points). Tell us about your experience of the transformation and explain each step. What part of your story is the data? How was the data transformed or seen as information? When did it become knowledge, etc. Tie your transformations to the literature that you found about this process. Show us how your transformation really was DIKW by demonstrating connections to the literature (tie your story to how the literature defines and describes DIKW). This post should be pretty heavily cited.
  3. Third, summarize the key points of DIKW and what you found to be most important and what you learned.

 

 

 

 

 



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

HLTAP501C Analyse health information



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

HLT51612 Diploma in Nursing
HLTAP501C Analyse health information
ASSESSMENT B
Body System Disorder 40%
Student will be required to research a disease / disorder relating to a body system that has been discussed within this unit.
Student will need to set out the assignment as follows:
• Introduction to the disease
• Set the body of the assignment under each heading of the ‘key areas to be covered’ as set out below.
• Name and student ID displayed on the footer of each page.
The specific date of your assignment will be confirmed by your teacher.
Key areas to be covered:
1. The occurrence of the disorder (Occurrence = Patterns and frequency).
2. The aetiology of the disorder (Aetiology = All the factors involved in causing the disease).
3. The clinical presentation of individuals with the disorder = manifestation (signs and symptoms of the disease).
4. The nursing interventions utilised to manage and/or alleviate the disorder (use nursing diagnoses to guide your interventions and the rationale for these interventions.
5. The medical, allied health management including health education.
6. Relevant health and community services/agencies available to support individuals and/or their families with this particular disorder.
You may like to collect relevant brochures, pamphlets and other primary health material relevant to this disorder and submit them into your Portfolio Presentation.
Word Count: approx. 500 words
Referencing: Harvard Referencing System
Due date: 27/1/15
HLT51612 Diploma in Nursing
HLTAP501C Analyse health information
ASSESSMENT B MARKING GUIDE: BODY SYSTEM DISORDER
ASSIGNMENT 40%
STUDENT NAME: _____________________ DATE: __________________
STUDENT GROUP: ____________________ ID NO: ___________________
Assessment Criteria
Allocated marks Mark achieved
1. Introduction / definition 2
2. Occurrence of the disorder 2
3. The aetiology of the disorder
5
4. Clinical presentation
5
5 Therapeutic and nursing interventions
10
6 Medical allied health and nursing interventions
5
7. Relevant health and community services 3
Referencing
Presentation (spelling and grammar)
5
3
Total
40 Marks
COMMENTS
Assessor’s Signature: ……………………………….… Date: …………………………



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

Unit Code MN503 – T2 2017



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

Assessment Details and Submission Guidelines
Unit Code MN503 – T2 2017
Unit Title Overview of Internetworking
Assessment Type Individual, written, demonstration
Assessment Title Network requirement analysis and plan (Supplementary Assignment 1)
Purpose of the assessment (with
ULO Mapping) Main objectives of this assignment is to enable student to analyse a business case study, develop requirements, select networking devices for the given business case and plan a network design. After successful completion of this assignment, students should be able to:
a. Analyse and discuss the significance of internetworking for contemporary organisations.
b. Explain the role of internetworking to support business and technical goals through planning and design.
c. Develop architectural internetworking design for the business, information, technology, and application domains.
Weight 15% of the total assessments
Total Marks 40
Word limit 700 (approximately 3 pages)
Due Date Thursday, 16 November 2017 Moodle
Submission Guidelines • All work must be submitted on Moodle by the due date along with a completed Assignment Cover Page.
• The assignment must be in MS Word format, 1.5 spacing, 11-pt Calibri (Body) font and 2 cm margins on all four sides of your page with appropriate section headings.
• Reference sources must be cited in the text of the report, and listed appropriately at the end in a reference list using IEEE referencing style.
Extension • If an extension of time to submit work is required, a Special Consideration Application must be submitted directly to the School’s Administration Officer, on academic reception level. You must submit this application within three working days of the assessment due date. Further information is available at:
http://www.mit.edu.au/about-mit/institute-publications/policies-proceduresand-guidelines/specialconsiderationdeferment
Academic Misconduct • Academic Misconduct is a serious offence. Depending on the seriousness of the case, penalties can vary from a written warning or zero marks to exclusion from the course or rescinding the degree. Students should make themselves familiar with the full policy and procedure available at: http://www.mit.edu.au/aboutmit/institute-publications/policies-procedures-and-guidelines/PlagiarismAcademic-Misconduct-Policy-Procedure. For further information, please refer to the Academic Integrity Section in your Unit Description.
Prepared by: Dr Jahan Hassan November, 2017
Assignment 1 Specification
Business case study: Choose one of the two business case studies provided in the appendix on page 4. You have to inform your instructor on the choice before start working on the assignment.
Description
For a chosen business case, write a report on the following points:
a. Analyse and discuss the significance of internetworking for the chosen business case.
b. Develop hardware requirements for a network with device specifications including series, model and features.
c. Draw architectural internetworking design for the business in Netsim.
Write a report with the following contents
• Project Scope
• Challenges
• Project hardware requirements
– Name of the network device with manufacturer’s name, series, model, features and ports
– Type of the cables
– Name of the server, PC with specification such as operating system, RAM, hard disk etc.
• Network Design in Netsim (You must not use packet tracer, or any other software!) • Outcomes / benefits of the proposed design • Limitations and conclusions.
Prepared by: Dr Jahan Hassan November, 2017

Marking criteria:
Section to be included in the report Description of the section Marks
Project scope Outline of the report ( in 3-4 sentences) 2
Challenges Write at least 3 appropriate challenges you might face during network setup. 3
Project hardware requirements – Name of the network device with manufacturer’s name, series, model, features and ports
– Type of the cables
– Name of the server, PC with specification such as operating system, RAM, hard disk etc. 10
2
2
Network Design in Netsim Use NETSIM ONLY!
Screen capture of Netsim design.
Write justification for the selected network design. 10
Outcomes Write at least 2 outcomes of the network 2
Limitations Write limitations of the hardware devices used in your design. 2
Conclusions Write a clear conclusion of the case study. 2
Reference style Follow IEEE reference style 5
Total 40

Prepared by: Dr Jahan Hassan November, 2017

Appendix- a list of case studies (please choose one)
Business case study 1
Cisco Crownnetstart case study, URL:
http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/global/en_au/assets/business/assets/pdfs/crownnetstar_casestudy.pdf
Business case study 2
Cisco Sleepcity case study, URL: http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/global/en_au/assets/docs/cisco_sleepcity.pdf
Australian Entertainment Complex Provides World-Class Guest
Experience
Crown Melbourne Limited uses unified communications to differentiate guest rooms and contact centers.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
CROWN MELBOURNE LIMITED
? Hospitality
? Melbourne, Australia
? 5700 employees
CHALLENGE
? Differentiate guest experience
? Streamline hotel processes for greater efficiency
SOLUTION
? Replaced private branch exchange systems with Unified Communications
? Created centralized customer contact center using Unified Contact Center Express
? Engaged NetStar Australia, a Cisco Certified Gold Partner, to integrate Unified
Communications with third-party hospitality applications
RESULTS
? Created unique in-room experience
? Enabled guests to easily request services in preferred language
? Consolidated three contact center locations to one
Challenge
The Crown Entertainment Complex is the premier facility of its type in Melbourne and is recognized as one of the largest and most diverse in the southern hemisphere. Covering the equivalent of two city blocks, Crown’s integrated facilities feature Crown Casino, with 350 tables and
2500 gaming machines; Crown Towers, Crown Promenade, and Crown Metropol (open mid-2010) hotels; the Palladium ballroom; more than 50 restaurants and bars; an extensive collection of international designer boutiques, 14 cinemas, two nightclubs, a live entertainment theatre, and Crown’s Capital Golf Club. The complex attracts more than 16 million visitors every year. Crown Towers was voted Top Hotel,
Australia / Pacific at the prestigious 2007 U.S. Condé Nast Traveler
Readers’ Choice Awards. Crown Promenade Hotel has won the Australian Tourism Award for best deluxe accommodation.
When planning the AU$65 million upgrade to Crown Towers in 2009, hotel management sought creative ways to differentiate its rooms. Crown wanted to extend its vision beyond remodeled bathrooms and high-end finishes to the actual guest experience. “In-room technology has become a major differentiator in top hotels,” says Ric Lamb, Executive General Manager for Management Information Systems, Crown Melbourne. “Crown decided to equip the rooms with the very latest communications technology to create an even more impressive experience and ‘wow’ factor.”
When originally built, each hotel had its own private branch exchange (PBX) system. Crown wanted to replace the PBX systems with a centralized unified communications system that shared the same Cisco® IP network the hotel uses for business applications. Combining voice and data on the same network would enable hotel guests to use inroom IP phones to view information such as weather, restaurant options, flight information, and more. Crown also wanted to offer a high-quality contact center experience to people who called its reservations center or requested services such as housekeeping or room service.
Solution
After evaluating unified communications solutions from three leading vendors, including the existing PBX provider, Crown chose Cisco Unified Communications. “Many of our guests are businesspeople, and they are already comfortable with Cisco Unified IP phones because they use them at work,” says Mr. Lamb. “The hospitality applications that Crown wanted to provide to guests are available on Cisco Unified IP phones. Crown’s experienced IT staff have the skills to manage Cisco equipment. And we like the idea of having a single point of contact for our network and communications system.”
NetStar Australia, a Cisco Gold Certified Partner, deployed Cisco Unified Communications and integrated it with hospitality applications from FCS Computer Systems, a member of the Cisco Developer Technology Program. So far, NetStar has installed more than 2100 Cisco Unified IP phones in Crown Tower guestrooms and Crown administration offices, and will have installed 7500 when the project is complete. During the transition, Cisco Unified Communications is interoperating with Crown’s original PBX systems.
Each suite has at least two phones, a Cisco Unified IP Phone 7975 with a color touch screen on the desk, and a Cisco Unified IP Phone 7906 in the bedroom. The largest suites have up to 21 IP phones. “Guests can just touch the screen to request room service, call housekeeping, view local weather or weather in their hometown, check flight schedules, view restaurant and retail store information, and more,” says Mr. Lamb. Guests can personalize the phone by saving speed-dial numbers and tagging webpages for quick access. The Crown marketing department worked with NetStar Australia to create attractive menus with a look and feel that reinforces the Crown brand. Phone menus appear in the guest’s preferred language, including Chinese.
NetStar Australia also deployed Cisco Unified Contact Center Express for Crown’s guest services and reservations contact centers. When agents receive a call, they can see the guest’s name and the requested service, such as housekeeping, on their PCs. The same screen displays a staff directory so that agents can just click to transfer the call if needed.
Results
Enhanced Contact Center Experience
In most hotels, calls for extra towels or room service, for example, are routed to different hotel departments. Each department needs enough communications lines and employees to answer all calls during peak calling times. Crown eliminates the guesswork by routing all calls to a centralized contact center with 40 trained agents. Cisco Unified Contact Center Express, which is integrated with the property management software, automatically routes calls to an agent who speaks the language the guest indicated during check in. Contact center managers can generate reports on demand with up-to-the-minute information on performance metrics, including the time needed to meet each customer request.
Streamlined Reservations Process
In the past, Crown’s Reservations Department had to continually check telephones, emails, and the fax machine to process new reservation requests. Now, with Cisco Unity® Unified Messaging, all types of messages appear in one place, the email inbox, saving time for agents and helping them provide better customer service.
Differentiated Guest Experience
Guests have responded positively to the Cisco Unified IP phones, and are especially enthusiastic about the touch screen menus that provide convenient information about hotel restaurants, retail stores, and other attractions and amenities.
“Crown continues to strive to be the best entertainment complex in Australia, and giving our valued hotel guests the benefit of the latest communications technology right in their rooms helps us achieve that goal,” says Ann Peacock, General Manager of Public Relations, Crown Melbourne.
Efficient Business Processes
Cisco Unified Communications is also streamlining the hotel’s business processes. For example, when housekeepers finish preparing a room for a new guest, they press buttons on the room phone to indicate that the room is ready. NetStar Australia set up the system so that this information is automatically transferred to the property management system. Immediate updates enable the hotel to make rooms available sooner to guests who arrive early.
Back-office employees like the time-saving features of Cisco Unified Communications, such as the ability to view a list of missed calls, click to call back, and view, playback, and forward voicemail messages from the email inbox.
Simplified IT Infrastructure
Before the upgrade, providing the standard two phones, two televisions, and Internet access in a guest room would have required five cables. “Now voice, television, and Internet access are all provided over the same Cisco IP network, reducing cabling requirements throughout the hotel property,” says Mr. Lamb.
Crown also anticipates reduced operational costs because the hotel no longer needs to use phone technicians to perform telephone extension moves, adds, and changes. Now anyone can move a Cisco Unified IP phone by disconnecting from the old location and connecting it in the new location. This capability is expected to save significant time during set up for conventions.
“Crown prides itself on customer service and value. Cisco has enabled
us to offer guests the very latest in technology, both in their rooms and
through their contact center experience.”
—Ric Lamb, Executive General Manager, Management Information Systems, Crown Melbourne
Next Steps
In mid-2010, Crown will extend Cisco Unified Communications to the Crown Promenade Hotel and Crown Metropol
(open mid-2010). These three hotels will offer guests the highest density of hotel rooms in Australia, and administration offices will share the same servers for IP telephony, the contact center, and unified messaging.
NetStar Australia is currently implementing another application from FCS Communications to further enhance the guest experience. When guests touch a menu option on the Cisco Unified IP phone to request an extra blanket or have their baggage brought to the lobby, for example, the contact center will automatically page the appropriate person. After fulfilling the request, the employee will close the request on an IP phone. If the request is not fulfilled within a defined amount of time, the request will be escalated.
Mr. Lamb concludes, “Crown prides itself on customer service and value. Cisco Unified Communications enables us to offer guests the very latest in technology, both in their rooms and through their contact center experience.”
For More Information
To find out more about Cisco Unified Communications, visit: www.cisco.com/go/unifiedcommunications
To join conversations and share best practices about collaboration, visit: www.cisco.com/go/joinconversation
For More Information on Crown Melbourne Limited
To find out more about Crown Melbourne Limited, visit: www.crowncasino.com
PRODUCT LIST
Network Systems
? Cisco 3845 Integrated Services Routers
? Cisco Catalyst® 6500 and 3750 Series Switches
Unified Communications
? Cisco Unified Communications Manager
? Cisco Unified IP Phones 7975G and 7906 for hotel guest rooms
? Cisco Unified IP Phones 7962G, 7942G, 7911G, and 7906 for administration, contact center, and reservations departments
? Cisco Unified Contact Center Express
? Cisco Unity Unified Messaging
? Cisco Unified Presence
? Cisco Fax Server
? Cisco Email Interaction Manager
? Cisco VG224 and VG248 Voice Gateways
Security
? Cisco 5520 Adaptive Security Appliances
Printed in USA C36-558776-00 12/09

Case study 2

Challenges
• Sleep City was expanding interstate and doubling its retail points of presence – it needed a new communication system that would be simple to deploy and cost-effective to scale.
• Access to Sleep City’s server, particularly from remote stores, was unreliable and slow, with dial-up dropouts damaging customer service at the point of sale.
• Sleep City wanted to introduce in-store email to curtail expensive faxing and improve communication and customer service.
Cisco® Intelligent Retail Network solution
• Cisco 2600 Series routers
• Cisco CallManager software
• Cisco Unity® Unified Messaging
• Cisco 7960G Unified IP Phones
• Cisco IP Conference Stations 7935
Benefits
• The new end-to-end IP infrastructure is a flexible foundation for all voice and data communications, enabling Sleep City to double its points of presence with only a 10% increase in communication costs.
• Stores have much faster and more reliable access to Sleep City’s server for point-of-sale and inventory data services, dramatically improving customer service.
• Email and low-cost IP phone calls have improved employee responsiveness and customer satisfaction while reducing fax costs by approximately 60%.
• Simple, centralised management of the entire communications system reduces user downtime and the need for IT personnel to travel to remote sites to resolve issues.
• The IP infrastructure is infinitely scalable,cost-effective to deploy and simple to configure for new users and locations, supporting Sleep City’s ongoing growth.
• Sleep City can now maximise the value of its investment by integrating new retail services and solutions into its standardised IP infrastructure to further improve communications, productivity and security. These include video surveillance, wireless warehouse management and an intranet.
Australian bedding retailer Sleep City joins the growing ranks of companies worldwide that are discovering the benefits of IP communications to improve customer service, streamline operations and lower the cost of doing business.
With plans to double its Australian retail presence, Sleep City was ready to move on from dial-up PSTN for information networking, and wanted a new phone system that would be simple to deploy and cost-effective to scale. At the same time it was looking for ways to improve customer service and inventory management by deploying Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tagging to track stock movement in real time.
Director of IT Robert Howard realised that reliable, high quality inter-store communications would be central to success. After careful research, he selected a Cisco IP infrastructure. This provided the innovation, cost savings and scalability Sleep City was looking for to grow the business.
Robert says, “My research identified an immediate monthly saving from IP telephony that would multiply across our growing retail base to provide a large financial benefit over the longer term.” And he was proved correct.
Bedding down an infrastructure for growth
“Sleep City has doubled its presence over three years to more than 70 stores nationally with only a 10% increase in communications costs,” says Robert Howard.
The company achieved this by deploying a Cisco® Intelligent Retail Network for all voice and data communications, enabling toll-free phone calls between locations. And the system is infinitely scalable, making it cost-effective to accommodate new stores and staff without the need to invest in or upgrade technology.

Improving customer service
A more reliable infrastructure has also brought immediate benefits to Sleep City stores, eliminating frequent dial-up dropouts and speeding up access to point-of-sale and inventory data services.
Robert says: “Now server access is instantaneous instead of laborious. Our remote sites particularly have experienced vast improvements in speed. Staff can put orders into the system, quickly check stock or retrieve it from other sites around the country, and that means better customer service.”
Reducing downtime with simpler management
The system is easier and more cost-effective to manage, because all store locations can be simply configured from headquarters via the Wide Area Network (WAN). This reduces user downtime and the need for IT personnel to travel to remote sites to resolve issues.
Working smarter
“ Sleep City has doubled its presence over three years to more than 70 stores nationally with only a 10% increase in communications costs.”
Robert Howard, Director of IT, Sleep City
The new system has dramatically changed the way Sleep City employees communicate between stores, making them much more productive and responsive – and that has led to improved customer satisfaction.
Sleep City previously relied heavily on faxing information. Customer-related email came via head office as the stores did not have their own email addresses. Now Sleep City has introduced email addresses for all stores, slashing fax costs by around 60% and enabling customers to directly contact their local stores for faster service. This also provides an electronic record of communications.
And when employees need to discuss something with a team member in another store, they send an email or pick up the phone – without worrying about call costs.
Employees gave the new IP telephone system the thumbs up, according to Robert: “Our receptionists like the ‘point and click’ and ‘drag and drop’ features – it’s very easy to follow.”
How it works
Designed to meet the needs of today’s demanding retail environment, Sleep City’s Cisco Intelligent Retail Network enables service delivery to a broad range of devices and applications. It features high-performance Cisco 2600 Series routers with built-in security and fail-safe measures protecting Sleep City’s data and business around the clock. Cisco CallManager efficiently processes network traffic for excellent voice quality and application performance, with voicemail provided by Cisco’s powerful Unity® Unified Messaging.
The integrated address book, intuitive navigation and hands-free and headset options of Cisco’s 7960G IP phones simplify communication. Calling another store, managing messages and returning customer calls are all as easy as pressing a button.
And doing business across Sleep City’s expanded store base is a whole lot easier with in-the-same-room voice quality teleconferencing using the Cisco 7935 IP Conference Station.
Reaping return on investment
Sleep City’s new Cisco Intelligent Retail Network is a flexible foundation for all voice and data communications, so the store can progressively integrate new productivityenhancing technologies and extend new retail services to improve competitiveness.
“When I looked at an IP infrastructure I believed it was important to do something that was right at the leading edge,” Robert explains. “We didn’t want to buy technology that was going to be old as soon as it was installed. So the advanced capability of the Cisco infrastructure made it very attractive to us.”
“ Now server access is instantaneous instead of laborious. Our remote sites particularly have experienced vast improvements in speed. Staff can put orders into the system, check stock or retrieve it from other sites around the country far more quickly, and that means better customer service.”
Robert Howard, Director of IT, Sleep City
“ …an unrivalled combination of industry expertise and superior technology capabilities.”
Robert Howard, Director of IT, Sleep City
In February 2006 the company opened a brand new headquarters housing more than 300 administrative, distribution and manufacturing employees. At this site, Sleep City is installing IP video surveillance, enabling managers to check on the facility from any location via the Internet and improving security at a fraction of the cost of CCTV.
Next a Cisco wireless warehouse management system will be introduced with handheld scanners for more efficient inventory management. In future, RFID technology will be used to track stock in real time.
And communication across the growing organisation will be further improved with the launch later this year of a staff intranet. Robert says, “Our employees will be able to download internal forms, such as timesheets and service reports, and shoot them straight to the appropriate person via email.”
All these innovations can be easily accommodated on Sleep City’s converged services network to further improve return on investment.
Cisco: the right choice
“We chose Cisco because it offered an unrivalled combination of industry expertise and superior technology capabilities,” Robert sums up. ”And more and more, as we look at expanding our capabilities, we’re seeing the benefits of having a standardised platform with a single vendor we can trust. Cisco supports many partners, and that gives us a lot of scope for the future.”

Corporate Headquarters Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-1706 USA
www.cisco.com Tel: 408 526-4000
800 553-NETS (6387)
Fax: 408 526-4100 European Headquarters
Cisco Systems International BV
Haarlerbergpark
Haarlerbergweg 13-19
1101 CH Amsterdam The Netherlands www-europe.cisco.com Tel: 31 0 20 357 1000 Fax: 31 0 20 357 1100 Americas Headquarters Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-1706 USA
www.cisco.com Tel: 408 526-7660 Fax: 408 527-0883 Asia Pacific Headquarters Cisco Systems, Inc.
168 Robinson Road
#28-01 Capital Tower Singapore 068912 www.cisco.com Tel: +65 6317 7777 Fax: +65 6317 7799

Cisco Systems has more than 200 offices in the following countries and regions. Addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers are listed on the Cisco.com Website at www.cisco.com/go/offices.
Argentina • Australia • Austria • Belgium • Brazil • Bulgaria • Canada • Chile • China PRC • Colombia • Costa Rica • Croatia • Cyprus • Czech Republic
Denmark • Dubai, UAE • Finland • France • Germany • Greece • Hong Kong SAR • Hungary • India • Indonesia • Ireland • Israel • Italy Japan • Korea • Luxembourg • Malaysia • Mexico • The Netherlands • New Zealand • Norway • Peru • Philippines • Poland • Portugal Puerto Rico • Romania • Russia • Saudi Arabia • Scotland • Singapore • Slovakia • Slovenia • South Africa • Spain • Sweden Switzerland • Taiwan • Thailand • Turkey • Ukraine • United Kingdom • United States • Venezuela • Vietnam • Zimbabwe
Copyright © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. CCSP, CCVP, the Cisco Square Bridge logo, Follow Me Browsing, and StackWise are trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc.; Changing the Way We Work, Live,
Play, and Learn, and iQuick Study are service marks of Cisco Systems, Inc.; and Access Registrar, Aironet, ASIST, BPX, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCIP, CCNA, CCNP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Cisco Unity, Empowering the Internet Generation, Enterprise/Solver, EtherChannel, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Fast Step, FormShare, GigaDrive, GigaStack, HomeLink, Internet Quotient, IOS, IP/TV, iQ Expertise, the iQ logo, iQ Net Readiness Scorecard, LightStream, Linksys, MeetingPlace, MGX, the Networkers logo, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, Packet, PIX, Post-Routing, Pre-Routing, ProConnect, RateMUX, ScriptShare, ScriptShare, SlideCast, SMARTnet, StrataView Plus, TeleRouter, The Fastest Way to Increase Your Internet Quotient, and TransPath are registered trademarks or trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and certain other countries.
All other trademarks mentioned in this document or Website are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (0502R)
9602-0706/Cisco



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

Collaboration between Australian Universities and Banking Industries for ensuring better future prospects for Australian Student.



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

Assignment 2 – Research Plan

This assignment requires you to devise and write a research plan for an empirical study of your own. Include the following elements:

  1. Title page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. including statement of the problem
  5. purpose and research questions (and/or hypotheses if quantitative)

iii.           limitations of the study

  1. Brief Review of the Literature
  2. Methods
  3. Study Design
  4. Sampling / Participants

iii.           Research Instruments / Procedures

  1. Establishing the rigour of the study (e.g., validity, reliability, member checking)
  2. Data Analysis – how will you analyze the data?
  3. Ethical Considerations
  4. Underlying Philosophical Assumptions
  5. Strengths and Limitations of the Study
  6. Timeline and Budget
  7. References

 



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

23787 HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

23787 HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT
Name_____________________________________________________
Student Number_____________________________________________
The aim of this assessment is to construct a simple decision tree diagram to assess the cost-effectiveness of a new cervical screening test when compared to the current screening test. The assessment task requires you to complete a series of structured stages, and then to write a brief health technology assessment report with the specified headings summarizing the project, methods and outcomes. All stages contribute to the assessment.
Please note that you DO NOT REQUIRE dedicated economic modelling software to complete this task. All of the calculations can be undertaken easily with a calculator or in Excel.
Your completed assessment should be submitted through TURNITIN – via UTS Online. Select Assessment from the menu
Label your attachment with your name and student number as follows:
23787_Assessment_3_First name_Last name_Student Number

Your completed assessment task should have
1. An executive summary that represents a brief health technology assessment report based on your answers: summarizing the project, methods and outcomes. This part should be no more than 500 words. (10 marks)
The required headings for the executive summary are:
• Objectives
• Methods
• Data
• Results
• Key areas of uncertainty
• Discussion
• Recommendation
2. An attachment that shows your answers to Parts One to Six of the task, including calculations where required. (Contribution to overall marks are shown for each part) (50 marks in total)
Part One: Calculating the accuracy of the two test alternatives (10 marks)
Screening tests for cervical cancer aim to identify pre-cancerous changes in the cervix that could develop into cervical cancer. If the pre-cancerous tissues is identified early and removed, then cervical cancer can be prevented for developing.
The Comparator – In the conventional Pap smear, the doctor collecting the cells smears them on a microscope slide and applies a fixative. This slide is then sent to a laboratory for evaluation. Studies of the accuracy of conventional (current) Pap smear tests report:
• Sensitivity 72%
• Specificity 94%
The New Test – The new test works in exactly the same way as the current test, however the manufacturer believes that the sensitivity of the new test is better. Below are the results of a cohort study that tested the new cervical screening test. Note that all women were 30 years of age when tested.
New Test Disease Status Total
Cervical cancer (+ve) Cervical cancer (-ve)
Test (Positive) 44 36
Test (Negative) 6 564
Total
A) For the new cervical screening test define the following, and include the number of individuals in each group.
• True positive
• False positive
• True negative
• False negative
B) Calculate the sensitivity and specificity for the new test.
C) Compared with the current test, the new test was evaluated using a different cohort of women and in a different laboratory. Does this influence the sensitivity and specificity of the new test?

Part Two: Construct a decision tree (10 marks)
Your task is to assess the cost-effectiveness of screening women when they reach the age of 30. We also assume that everyone who is invited to participate in screening program receives a cervical screening test (i.e. the uptake rate of the test is 100%).
Draw a decision tree to determine whether the new cervical screening test is more cost-effective than the current test. To do this you need to create a decision node with the option to accept the new test or the current test. For each test, the terminal nodes should reflect the possible outcomes of the test result (e.g. True positive etc…)

Part Three: Estimating the benefit of testing (5 marks)
To populate the decision tree we need to estimate the benefits and costs of each test option. The benefits of screening are measured in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained (i.e. quality-of-life multiplied by the number of years in that health state).
• Utility score – A time-trade off study conducted on the same cohort of women that received the new test demonstrated that;
o The average utility in the non-cancer group (test negative) was 0.92.
o The average utility in the non-cancer group (test positive) was 0.91 (slight reduction in utility due to further investigations and concern of possible cancer)
o The average utility in the cancer group (not detected by the test) was 0.45 (This reduced utility is due to the side-effects of treatment and the impact of the disease).
o The average utility in the cancer group (detected by the test and treated early) is 0.87 (there is a slight reduction in quality of life due to early treatment.
• Survival – Long-term registry data were used to estimate the additional survival (note that this is the additional survival beyond 30 years of age, which is the age when a person would be screened in this model)
o The average survival of a 30 year old woman with cervical cancer (not detected early) is an additional 5 years.
o The average survival of a 30 year old woman with cervical cancer that is detected early and treated (i.e. detected with a positive test results) is an additional 40 years.
o For all other 30 year old women (no cancer) the average survival is an additional 40 years.
A) Calculate the average additional QALYs gained for individuals with the following possible test outcomes:
• True positive
• False positive
• True negative
• False negative
B) In this model, all outcomes (costs and benefits) are undiscounted. Why do we discount future costs and benefits? Why might discounting costs and benefits at the same rate penalize preventative health programs?

Part Four: Estimating Costs (5 marks)
The tables below were taken from a longitudinal cohort study of women that participated in the current screening program. The unit costs are provided in Table 1. Table 2, contains an inventory of all the resources used, on average, by an individual depending upon their test result.
• For example, an individual identified as being ‘true positive’ (using the current test) would require the following resources – 1xcurrent test, 2 x GP visits, 1 x further examination – early treatment. Therefore their treatment would cost – 1x$50 + (2x$35) + 1 x $2000 = $2,120
Combine the information from Tables 1 and 2 to generate the total cost of each screening outcome. Do this for both the current test and the new test scenarios.
Table 1: Unit costs
Description Cost
Current test $50
New Test $300
GP appointment $35
Further examination – No treatment $500
Further examination – Early treatment $2000
Delayed treatment $50,000
Table 2: Resources use for each possible alternative
Current test New Test GP visit Further exam – no treat Further exam – early treat Delayed treatment
Current test True Positive 1 2 1
False positive 1 2 1
True negative 1 1
False negative 1 1 1
New Test True Positive 1 2 1
False positive 1 2 1
True negative 1 1
False negative 1 1 1
NOTE: All costs calculated should be presented to two decimal places.

Part Five: Cost-utility analysis (10 marks)
You should now have the following information:
• Accuracy of the current and new cervical screening tests
• A decision tree that reflects the possible outcomes of both tests
• An estimate of the QALYs gains for each alternative
• An estimate of the resource use (cost) of each alternative
The final information that you need to complete to complete the analysis is the prevalence of cervical cancer in this population. In this example we are screening women 30 years of age; the prevalence of cervical cancer in this cohort is 1 in 1000 or (0.001)
A) Complete Table 3: Model Parameters using the information Part One-Part Four.
Parameter description Current Test New Test
Prevalence of cervical cancer 0.001 0.001
Sensitivity of test 0.72
Specificity of test 0.94
Cost – True Positive
Cost – False Positive
Cost – True Negative
Cost – False negative
QALYs – True Positive
QALYs – False Positive
QALYs – True Negative
QALYs – False negative
B) You now need to combine this information into your decision tree to determine the cost-effectiveness of the new test relative to the current test. Provide your answer as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) (i.e. cost/QALY gained). Also, provide the diagram of your decision tree at this stage.
• Hint: Remember that you need to calculate the expected value (costs and QALYs) of each alternative before you can estimate the cost-effectiveness. It is easier to calculate the expected value if you start at the end of the tree, rather than the beginning (i.e. you need to roll-back the decision tree – see lecture notes for example)
C) If the decision maker has set an explicit threshold of $50,000 / QALY gained, would you say the new test is cost-effective? Explain your answer.

Part 6: Sensitivity Analysis (10 marks)
The decision maker would like you to determine the cost-effectiveness of the new test in a population of women with a family history of cervical cancer. In this high-risk cohort of women, the prevalence of cervical cancer is 1 in 100 (0.01).
A) Calculate the ICER of the new test relative to the current test in this high-risk population of women.
B) Why do you think the cost-effectiveness of the new test is sensitivity to prevalent risk of cervical cancer in the population?
C) In the original model (prevalence = 0.001), we assumed a 20 min GP appointment costs $35. However, an audit of General Practices conducting the new test shows that 60% of GPs charge patients a double appointment (2x20mins). How does this change you ICER? Explain your answer.
D) What would be the ICER for the new test in the high-risk cohort (prevalence of cervical cancer is 0.01), if 60% of GPs charge patients a double appointment (2x20mins).
E) What type of sensitivity analysis was carried out in sub-question (D)? What is the advantage of this over what was conducted in sub-question (C)?



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

Name_____________________________________________________
Student Number_____________________________________________
The aim of this assessment is to construct a simple decision tree diagram to assess the cost-effectiveness of a new cervical screening test when compared to the current screening test. The assessment task requires you to complete a series of structured stages, and then to write a brief health technology assessment report with the specified headings summarizing the project, methods and outcomes. All stages contribute to the assessment.
Please note that you DO NOT REQUIRE dedicated economic modelling software to complete this task. All of the calculations can be undertaken easily with a calculator or in Excel.
Your completed assessment should be submitted through TURNITIN – via UTS Online. Select Assessment from the menu
Label your attachment with your name and student number as follows:
23787_Assessment_3_First name_Last name_Student Number

Your completed assessment task should have
1. An executive summary that represents a brief health technology assessment report based on your answers: summarizing the project, methods and outcomes. This part should be no more than 500 words. (10 marks)
The required headings for the executive summary are:
• Objectives
• Methods
• Data
• Results
• Key areas of uncertainty
• Discussion
• Recommendation
2. An attachment that shows your answers to Parts One to Six of the task, including calculations where required. (Contribution to overall marks are shown for each part) (50 marks in total)
Part One: Calculating the accuracy of the two test alternatives (10 marks)
Screening tests for cervical cancer aim to identify pre-cancerous changes in the cervix that could develop into cervical cancer. If the pre-cancerous tissues is identified early and removed, then cervical cancer can be prevented for developing.
The Comparator – In the conventional Pap smear, the doctor collecting the cells smears them on a microscope slide and applies a fixative. This slide is then sent to a laboratory for evaluation. Studies of the accuracy of conventional (current) Pap smear tests report:
• Sensitivity 72%
• Specificity 94%
The New Test – The new test works in exactly the same way as the current test, however the manufacturer believes that the sensitivity of the new test is better. Below are the results of a cohort study that tested the new cervical screening test. Note that all women were 30 years of age when tested.
New Test Disease Status Total
Cervical cancer (+ve) Cervical cancer (-ve)
Test (Positive) 44 36
Test (Negative) 6 564
Total
A) For the new cervical screening test define the following, and include the number of individuals in each group.
• True positive
• False positive
• True negative
• False negative
B) Calculate the sensitivity and specificity for the new test.
C) Compared with the current test, the new test was evaluated using a different cohort of women and in a different laboratory. Does this influence the sensitivity and specificity of the new test?

Part Two: Construct a decision tree (10 marks)
Your task is to assess the cost-effectiveness of screening women when they reach the age of 30. We also assume that everyone who is invited to participate in screening program receives a cervical screening test (i.e. the uptake rate of the test is 100%).
Draw a decision tree to determine whether the new cervical screening test is more cost-effective than the current test. To do this you need to create a decision node with the option to accept the new test or the current test. For each test, the terminal nodes should reflect the possible outcomes of the test result (e.g. True positive etc…)

Part Three: Estimating the benefit of testing (5 marks)
To populate the decision tree we need to estimate the benefits and costs of each test option. The benefits of screening are measured in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained (i.e. quality-of-life multiplied by the number of years in that health state).
• Utility score – A time-trade off study conducted on the same cohort of women that received the new test demonstrated that;
o The average utility in the non-cancer group (test negative) was 0.92.
o The average utility in the non-cancer group (test positive) was 0.91 (slight reduction in utility due to further investigations and concern of possible cancer)
o The average utility in the cancer group (not detected by the test) was 0.45 (This reduced utility is due to the side-effects of treatment and the impact of the disease).
o The average utility in the cancer group (detected by the test and treated early) is 0.87 (there is a slight reduction in quality of life due to early treatment.
• Survival – Long-term registry data were used to estimate the additional survival (note that this is the additional survival beyond 30 years of age, which is the age when a person would be screened in this model)
o The average survival of a 30 year old woman with cervical cancer (not detected early) is an additional 5 years.
o The average survival of a 30 year old woman with cervical cancer that is detected early and treated (i.e. detected with a positive test results) is an additional 40 years.
o For all other 30 year old women (no cancer) the average survival is an additional 40 years.
A) Calculate the average additional QALYs gained for individuals with the following possible test outcomes:
• True positive
• False positive
• True negative
• False negative
B) In this model, all outcomes (costs and benefits) are undiscounted. Why do we discount future costs and benefits? Why might discounting costs and benefits at the same rate penalize preventative health programs?

Part Four: Estimating Costs (5 marks)
The tables below were taken from a longitudinal cohort study of women that participated in the current screening program. The unit costs are provided in Table 1. Table 2, contains an inventory of all the resources used, on average, by an individual depending upon their test result.
• For example, an individual identified as being ‘true positive’ (using the current test) would require the following resources – 1xcurrent test, 2 x GP visits, 1 x further examination – early treatment. Therefore their treatment would cost – 1x$50 + (2x$35) + 1 x $2000 = $2,120
Combine the information from Tables 1 and 2 to generate the total cost of each screening outcome. Do this for both the current test and the new test scenarios.
Table 1: Unit costs
Description Cost
Current test $50
New Test $300
GP appointment $35
Further examination – No treatment $500
Further examination – Early treatment $2000
Delayed treatment $50,000
Table 2: Resources use for each possible alternative
Current test New Test GP visit Further exam – no treat Further exam – early treat Delayed treatment
Current test True Positive 1 2 1
False positive 1 2 1
True negative 1 1
False negative 1 1 1
New Test True Positive 1 2 1
False positive 1 2 1
True negative 1 1
False negative 1 1 1
NOTE: All costs calculated should be presented to two decimal places.

Part Five: Cost-utility analysis (10 marks)
You should now have the following information:
• Accuracy of the current and new cervical screening tests
• A decision tree that reflects the possible outcomes of both tests
• An estimate of the QALYs gains for each alternative
• An estimate of the resource use (cost) of each alternative
The final information that you need to complete to complete the analysis is the prevalence of cervical cancer in this population. In this example we are screening women 30 years of age; the prevalence of cervical cancer in this cohort is 1 in 1000 or (0.001)
A) Complete Table 3: Model Parameters using the information Part One-Part Four.
Parameter description Current Test New Test
Prevalence of cervical cancer 0.001 0.001
Sensitivity of test 0.72
Specificity of test 0.94
Cost – True Positive
Cost – False Positive
Cost – True Negative
Cost – False negative
QALYs – True Positive
QALYs – False Positive
QALYs – True Negative
QALYs – False negative
B) You now need to combine this information into your decision tree to determine the cost-effectiveness of the new test relative to the current test. Provide your answer as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) (i.e. cost/QALY gained). Also, provide the diagram of your decision tree at this stage.
• Hint: Remember that you need to calculate the expected value (costs and QALYs) of each alternative before you can estimate the cost-effectiveness. It is easier to calculate the expected value if you start at the end of the tree, rather than the beginning (i.e. you need to roll-back the decision tree – see lecture notes for example)
C) If the decision maker has set an explicit threshold of $50,000 / QALY gained, would you say the new test is cost-effective? Explain your answer.

Part 6: Sensitivity Analysis (10 marks)
The decision maker would like you to determine the cost-effectiveness of the new test in a population of women with a family history of cervical cancer. In this high-risk cohort of women, the prevalence of cervical cancer is 1 in 100 (0.01).
A) Calculate the ICER of the new test relative to the current test in this high-risk population of women.
B) Why do you think the cost-effectiveness of the new test is sensitivity to prevalent risk of cervical cancer in the population?
C) In the original model (prevalence = 0.001), we assumed a 20 min GP appointment costs $35. However, an audit of General Practices conducting the new test shows that 60% of GPs charge patients a double appointment (2x20mins). How does this change you ICER? Explain your answer.
D) What would be the ICER for the new test in the high-risk cohort (prevalence of cervical cancer is 0.01), if 60% of GPs charge patients a double appointment (2x20mins).
E) What type of sensitivity analysis was carried out in sub-question (D)? What is the advantage of this over what was conducted in sub-question (C)?



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

STRATEGIC THINKING How Leaders Can Focus on the Big Picture by Elsbeth Johnson NOVEMBER 09, 2016 Every leader knows that they shouldn’t micromanage



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

STRATEGIC THINKING How Leaders Can Focus on the Big Picture by Elsbeth Johnson NOVEMBER 09, 2016 Every leader knows that they shouldn’t micromanage — even if some of us still do. But while we understand the downsides of micromanaging and taken action to avoid it, we still haven’t sufficiently embraced the upsides of not micromanaging. The main upside is that leaders have more time to spend on what we call macromanagement. Although there are different definitions of this term floating around, when I talk with executives, I use it to mean managing the big issues rather than the small ones. Time and effort spent on macromanagement enables leaders to be as clear, decisive, and disciplined at the macro level — on COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 the big strategic questions the organization is facing — as their managers are at the micro level, i.e., about how these decisions might be implemented. So, what are these big strategic questions that leaders aren’t spending enough time on or aren’t answering in a sufficiently clear or disciplined way? They are questions about: • why the organization exists and what its purpose is • what it offers (and does not offer) its customers, and how and why this offer delivers value to these customers • what this produces for the business and for shareholders — the critical outcome metrics by which the organization will be judged • how the people within the organization will behave — toward customers, other stakeholders, and each other I don’t know many leaders who would say they don’t think these questions are important. But I know lots of leaders who don’t spend enough time answering them, and even more who don’t answer them with sufficient clarity so their people can then get on with delivering the answers. Lack of Time Isn’t the Only Reason Leaders Ignore These Questions A lack of time, too many so-called “priorities,” and the gnawing presence of the urgent masquerading as the important are usually quoted as the main reasons why leaders’ answers to these macro questions aren’t clear enough. But I suspect an even more fundamental reason is at play here. For the past 30 years, the literature on leadership and empowerment has advised leaders not to be too prescriptive about these questions, lest they undermine employee empowerment. We have been told that participative leadership, rather than prescriptive leadership, is what we should aim for; that organizations should be agile, with “change the only constant”; and that empowerment is critical for employee satisfaction and long-term value. I agree with the third point: Empowerment is critical. But, as my own research shows, in order to be meaningful, empowerment requires some boundaries, some rules that have been decided on within which empowerment can be exercised. Ironically, in order to truly empower employees, leaders need to be prescriptive, at least about certain things. And these things are precisely the macro questions of why the organization exists, what it will deliver, and how it will behave. If leaders aren’t providing clarity and certainty about these critical macro questions, then the best, most motivated employees flail in their so-called freedom because they can’t be sure they are doing what leaders want or are using their time and resources in the best way possible. And because they want to do that, they find this lack of prescription stressful — and a huge constraint on them acting in an empowered way. Equally, the less keen and the less motivated on the payroll take this lack of COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3 prescription by leaders as license to do what they want (and perhaps what they were already doing), which, of course, may be diametrically opposed to what the leaders had in mind. Making time for such macro questions is not a luxury — it is a necessity. And is it not something that can be delegated or outsourced. Nor is it something that leaders should do only once a year, at the strategy offsite or at the start of the strategic planning round. It needs to become part of their weekly routine. OK, I Made the Time. Now What? Once you’ve set aside time on a regular basis to wrestle with these questions, how can you come up with the best possible answers — and refine those answers? Here are some tips from those I’ve seen do it well: • Make choices in the negative. For everything you decide you want (a particular market positioning, an investment in a new product, a new capability or function), articulate what that means you can’t do. This forces you to think through the consequences of choosing these options by thinking about what the trade-offs are for each choice you are making. • Pretend you have no money. When organizations are strapped for cash, they have to make hard choices about what to spend money on because they don’t have enough. It’s often during such times that leaders describe themselves as at their most strategic. But it’s easy to diet if someone’s padlocked the fridge — what happens when you get the key back? All too frequently, when the cash starts to flow again, leaders start “choosing everything” again, and it’s this oxymoron that sows the seeds of the next bout of underperformance. Having too many priorities means you don’t really have any, which puts your organization’s implementation capability under strain. It also compromises your own leadership bandwidth, reducing your ability to macromanage. So pretend you’re cash-strapped — it will act as the ultimate constraint on your desire to choose everything. • Talk to the unusual suspects. These could be inside or outside your organization, but whoever they are, choose them because they are likely to disagree with you, challenge you, or tell you something you don’t know. To ensure you have a ready supply of such people, you may need to look again at your strategic network — it may have gotten too stale to offer you such connections. If that’s the case, weed out the deadwood and actively recruit people from different sectors, skill sets, and backgrounds who can help you test the quality of your macro answers. Questions to ask them include: “Why will this not work?” and “What do I have to believe for this not to turn out that way?” Being challenged and having new information may well change your answers; even if it does not, it will make your existing answers more robust. • Exist at the macro and micro-levels simultaneously. One of the CEOs I most admire can do this — she goes from 10,000 feet to ground level in 30 seconds, linking her answers to the macro questions (this purpose, this brand positioning, this customer offer) to the micro operational implications for the business. But what she does really well is come back up. Because it is all too tempting, once you have gone micro, to stay there. But the main point of going micro is to test the validity of the macromanagement views you are coming to. COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4 Of course, the prize for middle managers here is huge — once leaders are sufficiently clear and prescriptive about these macro questions, middle managers can get on with implementing them. But the prize for leaders is arguably greater still: They might no longer be needed for the daily grind of managing the business and can instead use their time and effort for the true work of leadership. That is, they can think about the strategic rather than the tactical, focus on the future rather than the present. After all, isn’t that why they wanted to become leaders in the first place? Elsbeth Johnson, Ph.D., is an Adjunct Professor of Organisational Behaviour at London Business School and a Visiting Fellow at the LSE. COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5 Copyright of Harvard Business Review Digital Articles is the property of Harvard Business School Publication Corp. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.LEADERSHIP When Charismatic Leadership Goes Too Far by Dan Ciampa NOVEMBER 21, 2016 In most cases, charisma is a useful quality for CEOs. Many work hard to develop charismatic skills. Especially when an organization is asked to become more innovative and to perform beyond normal levels, having followers with an unusually strong belief in the leader and their vision increases the odds of success. But charisma has a dark side that can sap the strength and potency from an organization. If it grows too powerful, the leader becomes inefective at motivating others and at driving the business. COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 Charisma is often misunderstood. Historian Arthur Schlesinger helped popularize the term in the 1960s. As it became used widely, he complained that the word had been reduced to simply “a chic synonym for ‘heroic’…or even just ‘popular.’” It became widely used during and after World War II, when it was used to describe Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill…but was just as frequently applied to Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. The sociologist Max Weber defned the “charismatic organization” as one that exists not due to a legal structure or a strong tradition but to the personal magnetism of the person leading it. That’s one reason the word “charismatic” often comes up when describing the dynamics of cults. Up to a point, having a magnetic leader — someone that people want to follow — is good for an organization that has to go through signifcant change. Charismatic leaders are skilled at articulating a compelling vision that inspires followers. They’re also adept at reading the environment and sensing the needs of followers to tailor a message that will have the most impact. Charismatic leaders are good storytellers who use symbolism and metaphor to make stories come alive. But true charismatic leadership is more than just a set of techniques to excite followers. Rather, it comes from the leader’s observable behavior, displaying a deep belief in the promise and possibilities of the organization, a sense of optimism for the probability of success, and a willingness to take personal risks and make sacrifces to turn the vision into reality. Often, followers admire a charismatic leader enough to actively try to develop some of the leader’s distinctive qualities in themselves. Bu charisma can be a slippery slope. Over time, deepening loyalty creates negative changes in the leader’s behavior. A leader must be attuned to early signs of this shift, which sounds easier than it is. There are fve phases that take place as a leader’s charisma shifts from a positive to a negative quality: The frst phase is characterized by the subtle sense on the part of followers that the leader does not want to be questioned. Followers may begin to quietly complain that the leader is becoming hubristic and acts like they believe they’re the smartest person in the room. The second stage fows logically from the frst: sensing the leader’s diminished appetite for being questioned or challenged, followers begin to self-censor, asking fewer questions and no longer playing devil’s advocate. One person reported: “The last time I [pushed back], he came back with a bunch of reasons why I was wrong, and I felt stupid. I’m not going there again.” Instead of fostering healthy dissent, the charismatic leader begins to be surrounded by “yes” people. As the leader begins to hear only praise and admiration, they enter the third stage: a negative cycle in which compliments and agreement cause them to become overconfdent. Leaders in this stage create their own sense of reality and become resistant to evidence that they may be incorrect. While the frst COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3 and second stages mostly involve recognition by followers, the third stage involves a distinct shift in behavior by the leader. If nothing is done to stop this cycle, it progresses to the fourth stage. Since the leader’s views and actions are the only ones that matter, followers reduce their willingness to be proactive. They wait for directions and become passive. Decision making slows down. Eforts at strengthening teamwork stop, and meetings change from a time of joint decisions and buy-in to being when the leader announces what everyone else should do. Leaders in this situation complain: “If I want something done right, I need to do it myself.” Because followers begin to grow disillusioned, this stage ends with rising employee turnover. The ffth stage is characterized by people continuing to follow and ostensibly do only what is necessary but with a deep diminishment in enthusiasm and spirit. They still hear and comply with what the leader wants, but the passion is gone because they don’t feel that they are a part of it anymore. Eventually, they stop listening and become cynical. Creativity and productivity decline. What was once a shared, common vision is now just the leader’s vision. The leader feels unsupported and followers feel estranged. What should leaders be aware of to prevent a slide down this slope? First, charismatic leadership is as seductive for the leader as for followers, and the better one is at it, the easier it is to be blind to signs of trouble. Second, the relationship between leader and followers is delicate and requires constant tending. If not managed well by both, a slippery slope can lead to behavior that will destroy the success that they have achieved. Third, while both leader and followers have responsibility to manage their relationship, the leader has far more power to determine the outcome. If he or she does not allow for feedback and dissent, followers will accommodate rather than push back. Fourth, the slippery slope that results has certain points where negative efects can be reversed, but if they’re ignored, the accelerating momentum will be impossible to stop, causing failure that damages the leader and organization. Because each situation is diferent, there aren’t steps that will always avoid or solve problems. In general, though, there are two areas where leaders, especially charismatic ones, should concentrate. One has to do with the culture of the organization, and the other is about themselves and how they lead. Sliding down the slippery slope will be less likely if the culture emphasizes open communication, including a structured method to extract learning from every success and mistake. Forums must exist where the big bets of the strategy are debated, including a talent plan that ensures a match between the strategy and the people who must achieve it. Feedback must be a company norm that people are trained in, and it must be encouraged and rewarded. On the personal front, the keys for the leader are self-awareness and self-management. Being selfaware is, in efect, believing there’s a camera flming every move one makes, a humbling mindset COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4 that encourages leaders to view themselves as followers do. The leader must make the choice to let others in on their thinking; the right people could include a board member and direct reports with the skills and the license to ofer advice. Managing stress must be a priority. Depending on the leader’s needs and personality, doing so could include such steps as structure or personnel changes, restructuring one’s administrative system to conserve time, wise use of a balanced set of trusted advisors who act as honest brokers, and tending to one’s overall wellness, perhaps through an exercise program or meditation. Charisma, when it’s based on deep conviction of shared success and when it’s skillfully projected, can help a leader be very efective and an organization thrive even during difcult times. But avoiding its dark side requires the leader to add attention to the culture, self-awareness, selfmanagement, and, perhaps most of all, the humility necessary to truly listen. Dan Ciampa (DC@danciampa.com) is a former CEO, an adviser to boards and chief executives, and the author of five books, including Transitions at the Top: What Organizations Must Do to Make Sure New Leaders Succeed (with David L. Dotlich, Wiley, 2015) and Right from the Start: Taking Charge in a New Leadership Role (with Michael Watkins, Harvard Business Review Press, 1999). COPYRIGHT © 2016 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5 Copyright of Harvard Business Review Digital Articles is the property of Harvard Business School Publication Corp. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

Academic Research Essay Outline



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

Academic Research Essay Outline

Topic: You may choose your topic so long as it specifically relates to law, society, &/or justice.  The only topics you may not write about are abortion, death penalty, or marijuana.

 

Part 1: Outline the Following Preliminary Ideas for Your Essay:

 

 

 

  1. Thesis statement-A one-sentence, overall argument that you assert or your take-away message—a “should”-type statement.

 

  1. A topic sentence for your background information paragraph.  This sentence should convey the overall meaning of the paragraph.

 

III.            A “reason” topic sentence.  A reason provides a “why” or “because” the thesis statement is true.  This sentence states the overall meaning or concept that will be covered in the paragraph.

 

  1. Another “reason” topic sentence.  A reason provides a “why” or “because” the thesis statement is true.  This sentence states the overall meaning or concept that will be covered in the paragraph.

 

  1. Another “reason” topic sentence.  A reason provides a “why” or “because” the thesis statement is true.  This sentence states the overall meaning or concept that will be covered in the paragraph.

 

Part 2: Write one full paragraph that explains how the topic you chose relates to law, society, &/or justice.

 



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

Management of Diabetes



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service

– Total Value 60% – Due Date: Monday 30th October 2017 by 11:59 pm –

 

 

Objectives:

 

  1. To critically examine and review specific strategies recommended for use by an interdisciplinary team for the prevention, management OR rehabilitation of a chronic condition

 

  1. To apply chronic disease prevention, management or rehabilitation strategy review findings to a chronic condition to meet the needs of a specific population in a particular setting

 

  1. To synthesise and interpret relevant readings into a coherent report.

 

TASK

 

Using the same chronic condition chosen for Assignment 1:

 

  • Choose a specific population and a setting for your Professional Action Plan. Both population and setting can be hypothetical or real.
  • Develop an ‘Aim’ and threeM.A.R.T. objectives (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely) for the prevention, management OR rehabilitation of the selected chronic condition (from Assignment 1) to meet the needs of your specific population.
  • Critically examine strategies that can address your aim and objectives for the prevention, management or rehabilitation of your chosen chronic condition.
  • Create a professional action plan based on the chosen strategies for use by an interdisciplinary team for the prevention, management or rehabilitation of the selected chronic condition to meet the needs of your specific population

 

As an academic report, your assignment should have an introduction, a body and a conclusion. Some suggested content to cover in your report includes:

 

 

  • A title page (your name coordinator’s name, date,

and student number, title of unit, title of assignment, unit total word count)

 

 

  • A brief introduction to your chronic condition

 

  • A description of your setting, population or subpopulation of choice

 

  • Your aim and three S.M.A.R.T objectives

 

  • A discussion of your chosen specific strategies to address your aim and objectives. This discussion should include the strategies’ strengths and limitations, and evidence of their effectiveness (e.g. previous studies, systematic reviews, etc) in the prevention, management OR rehabilitation of the selected chronic condition

 

  • Your professional action plan (see template attached)

 

  • Conclusions

 

 

1

 

 

title page and references Formatting

 

  • Font size 11pt or 12pt

 

  • 5 or double line spacing

 

  • Standard 2.5cm margins

 

  • APA referencing

 

  • Page numbers

 

  • Student name and number in header or footer

 

  • Use of subheadings is highly recommende

 

Action Plan Template

 

Aim:

 

Objective Strategy Actions Outcome measures Outcome indicators   By who? Timeline

 

1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Click here to order this paper @Superbwriters.com. The Ultimate Custom Paper Writing Service